As opposed to the highly structured educational process of college and medical school, education of the surgical resident can be more challenging in that it must occur simultaneous with patient care responsibilities. Maintaining balance between service and education can be difficult, and surgical educators must guide residents down this often narrow path. Just as there are diverse opportunities for faculty to participate in research within a department, so are the opportunities for participating in resident education. Whether in the operating room, on wards, or in formal didactic sessions, educational opportunities exist in all aspects of a surgical faculty’s day. This chapter summarizes the opportunities for resident education and discusses some of the benefits and barriers commonly encountered.