Genetics and Gynecological Cancer

  • Beth OvermoyerEmail author


Several characteristics are associated with familial cancer syndromes, e.g., the disease onset usually occurs at a younger age than that associated with sporadic cancers. However, an inherited predisposition to gynecologic malignancies remains an important component of the care of the elderly woman, not only as it effects her personal treatment of cancer and the prevention and screening for other malignancies that she may be at risk for, but also the implications for cancer risk among her relatives. For this reason, a discussion of the genetics associated with an inherited predisposition to gynecologic malignancy pertains to women of all ages.


Genetics Gynecological cancers Mutations Ovarian cancer Endometrial cancer Colorectal cancer 


  1. 1.
    Ivanovich J, Babb S, Goodfellow P, et al. Evaluation of the family history collection process and the accuracy of cancer reporting among a series of women with endometrial cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8(6):1849–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Soegaard M, Frederiksen K, Jensen A, et al. Risk of ovarian cancer in women with first-degree relatives with cancer. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(4):449–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seger HM, Soisson AP, Dodson MK, Rowe KG, Cannon-Albright LA. Familial clustering of endometrial cancer in a well-defined population. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;122(1):75–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Antoniou A, Pharoah PD, Narod S, et al. Average risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations detected in case series unselected for family history: a combined analysis of 22 studies. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;72(5):1117–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Risch HA, McLaughlin JR, Cole DE, et al. Prevalence and penetrance of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a population series of 649 women with ovarian cancer. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;68(3):700–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Risch HA, McLaughlin JR, Cole DE, et al. Population BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation frequencies and cancer penetrances: a kin-cohort study in Ontario, Canada. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98(23):1694–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Satagopan JM, Boyd J, Kauff ND, et al. Ovarian cancer risk in Ashkenazi Jewish carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8(12):3776–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    King MC, Marks JH, Mandell JB. Breast and ovarian cancer risks due to inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Science. 2003;302(5645):643–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Metcalfe K, Lubinski J, Lynch HT, et al. Family history of cancer and cancer risks in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102(24):1874–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Moslehi R, Chu W, Karlan B, et al. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation analysis of 208 Ashkenazi Jewish women with ovarian cancer. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;66(4):1259–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Milne RL, Antoniou AC. Genetic modifiers of cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Ann Oncol. 2011;22 Suppl 1:i11–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lakhani SR, Manek S, Penault-Llorca F, et al. Pathology of ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(7):2473–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goodheart MJ, Rose SL, Hattermann-Zogg M, Smith BJ, De Young BR, Buller RE. BRCA2 alteration is important in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Clin Genet. 2009;76(2):161–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lynch HT, Casey MJ, Snyder CL, et al. Hereditary ovarian carcinoma: heterogeneity, molecular genetics, pathology, and management. Mol Oncol. 2009;3(2):97–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mavaddat N, Barrowdale D, Andrulis IL, et al. Pathology of breast and ovarian cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21(1):134–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wooster R, Bignell G, Lancaster J, et al. Identification of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2. Nature. 1995;378(6559):789–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miki Y, Swensen J, Shattuck-Eidens D, et al. A strong candidate for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1. Science. 1994;266(5182):66–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Venkitaraman AR. Cancer susceptibility and the functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Cell. 2002;108(2):171–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Knudson AG. Two genetic hits (more or less) to cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2001;1(2):157–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tischkowitz M, Xia B. PALB2/FANCN: recombining cancer and Fanconi anemia. Cancer Res. 2010;70(19):7353–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang F, Ma J, Wu J, et al. PALB2 links BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the DNA-damage response. Curr Biol. 2009;19(6):524–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Domanska K, Malander S, Staaf J, et al. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer. Oncol Rep. 2010;24(4):885–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    del Valle J, Feliubadalo L, Nadal M, et al. Identification and comprehensive characterization of large genomic rearrangements in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;122(3):733–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Palma MD, Domchek SM, Stopfer J, et al. The relative contribution of point mutations and genomic rearrangements in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in high-risk breast cancer families. Cancer Res. 2008;68(17):7006–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sluiter MD, van Rensburg EJ. Large genomic rearrangements of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes: review of the literature and report of a novel BRCA1 mutation. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;125(2):325–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Thompson D, Easton D. Variation in cancer risks, by mutation position, in BRCA2 mutation carriers. Am J Hum Genet. 2001;68(2):410–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thompson ER, Boyle SE, Johnson J, et al. Analysis of RAD51C germline mutations in high-risk breast and ovarian cancer families and ovarian cancer patients. Hum Mutat. 2012;33(1):95–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stadler ZK, Saloustros E, Hansen NA, et al. Absence of genomic BRCA1 and BRCA2 rearrangements in Ashkenazi breast and ovarian cancer families. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;123(2):581–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rafnar T, Benediktsdottir KR, Eldon BJ, et al. BRCA2, but not BRCA1, mutations account for familial ovarian cancer in Iceland: a population-based study. Eur J Cancer. 2004;40(18):2788–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Malacrida S, Agata S, Callegaro M, et al. BRCA1 p.Val1688del is a deleterious mutation that recurs in breast and ovarian cancer families from Northeast Italy. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(1):26–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    The Scottish/Northern Irish BRCA1/BRCA2 Consortium. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Br J Cancer. 2003;88(8):1256–62.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Finch A, Beiner M, Lubinski J, et al. Salpingo-oophorectomy and the risk of ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. JAMA. 2006;296(2):185–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Casey MJ, Synder C, Bewtra C, Narod SA, Watson P, Lynch HT. Intra-abdominal carcinomatosis after prophylactic oophorectomy in women of hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome kindreds associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;97(2):457–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Aziz S, Kuperstein G, Rosen B, et al. A genetic epidemiological study of carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;80(3):341–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Callahan MJ, Crum CP, Medeiros F, et al. Primary fallopian tube malignancies in BRCA-positive women undergoing surgery for ovarian cancer risk reduction. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(25):3985–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Medeiros F, Muto MG, Lee Y, et al. The tubal fimbria is a preferred site for early adenocarcinoma in women with familial ovarian cancer syndrome. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30(2):230–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Finch A, Shaw P, Rosen B, Murphy J, Narod SA, Colgan TJ. Clinical and pathologic findings of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies in 159 BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;100(1):58–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Norquist BM, Garcia RL, Allison KH, et al. The molecular pathogenesis of hereditary ovarian carcinoma: alterations in the tubal epithelium of women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Cancer. 2010;116(22):5261–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Folkins AK, Jarboe EA, Saleemuddin A, et al. A candidate precursor to pelvic serous cancer (p53 signature) and its prevalence in ovaries and fallopian tubes from women with BRCA mutations. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;109(2):168–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Folkins AK, Jarboe EA, Roh MH, Crum CP. Precursors to pelvic serous carcinoma and their clinical implications. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;113(3):391–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jarboe EA, Folkins AK, Drapkin R, Ince TA, Agoston ES, Crum CP. Tubal and ovarian pathways to pelvic epithelial cancer: a pathological perspective. Histopathology. 2008;53(2):127–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Banno K, Yanokura M, Kobayashi Y, et al. Endometrial cancer as a familial tumor: pathology and molecular carcinogenesis (review). Curr Genomics. 2009;10(2):127–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Buerki N, Gautier L, Kovac M, et al. Evidence for breast cancer as an integral part of Lynch syndrome. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012;51(1):83–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vasen HF, Mecklin JP, Khan PM, Lynch HT. The International Collaborative group on hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (ICG-HNPCC). Dis Colon Rectum. 1991;34(5):424–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Umar A, Boland CR, Terdiman JP, et al. Revised Bethesda guidelines for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) and microsatellite instability. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96(4):261–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Vasen HF, Watson P, Mecklin JP, Lynch HT. New clinical criteria for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, Lynch syndrome) proposed by the International Collaborative group on HNPCC. Gastroenterology. 1999;116(6):1453–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Manchanda R, Menon U, Michaelson-Cohen R, Beller U, Jacobs I. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer or Lynch syndrome: the gynaecological perspective. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2009;21(1):31–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gwin K, Wilcox R, Montag A. Insights into selected genetic diseases affecting the female reproductive tract and their implication for pathologic evaluation of gynecologic specimens. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009;133(7):1041–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shah SN, Hile SE, Eckert KA. Defective mismatch repair, microsatellite mutation bias, and variability in clinical cancer phenotypes. Cancer Res. 2010;70(2):431–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Baglietto L, Lindor NM, Dowty JG, et al. Risks of Lynch syndrome cancers for MSH6 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102(3):193–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bonadona V, Bonaiti B, Olschwang S, et al. Cancer risks associated with germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 genes in Lynch syndrome. JAMA. 2011;305(22):2304–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Boilesen AE, Bisgaard ML, Bernstein I. Risk of gynecologic cancers in Danish hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer families. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(11):1129–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hampel H, Frankel W, Panescu J, et al. Screening for Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) among endometrial cancer patients. Cancer Res. 2006;66(15):7810–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hendriks YM, Wagner A, Morreau H, et al. Cancer risk in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer due to MSH6 mutations: impact on counseling and surveillance. Gastroenterology. 2004;127(1):17–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Senter L, Clendenning M, Sotamaa K, et al. The clinical phenotype of Lynch syndrome due to germ-line PMS2 mutations. Gastroenterology. 2008;135(2):419–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Broaddus RR, Lynch HT, Chen LM, et al. Pathologic features of endometrial carcinoma associated with HNPCC: a comparison with sporadic endometrial carcinoma. Cancer. 2006;106(1):87–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Malander S, Rambech E, Kristoffersson U, et al. The contribution of the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome to the development of ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;101(2):238–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ketabi Z, Bartuma K, Bernstein I, et al. Ovarian cancer linked to Lynch syndrome typically presents as early-onset, non-serous epithelial tumors. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;121(3):462–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Watson P, Vasen HF, Mecklin JP, et al. The risk of extra-colonic, extra-endometrial cancer in the Lynch syndrome. Int J Cancer. 2008;123(2):444–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ellegren H. Microsatellites: simple sequences with complex evolution. Nat Rev Genet. 2004;5(6):435–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Peltomaki P. Lynch syndrome genes. Fam Cancer. 2005;4(3):227–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pal T, Permuth-Wey J, Sellers TA. A review of the clinical relevance of mismatch-repair deficiency in ovarian cancer. Cancer. 2008;113(4):733–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ollikainen M, Hannelius U, Lindgren CM, Abdel-Rahman WM, Kere J, Peltomaki P. Mechanisms of inactivation of MLH1 in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma: a novel approach. Oncogene. 2007;26(31):4541–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lavie O, Gruber SB, Lejbkowicz F, Dishon S, Rennert G. Gynecologic malignancies in Ashkenazi families with the MSH2 A636P founder mutation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199(2):148.e1–3.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mukherjee B, Rennert G, Ahn J, et al. High risk of colorectal and endometrial cancer in Ashkenazi families with the MSH2 A636P founder mutation. Gastroenterology. 2011;140(7):1919–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cederquist K, Emanuelsson M, Wiklund F, Golovleva I, Palmqvist R, Gronberg H. Two Swedish founder MSH6 mutations, one nonsense and one missense, conferring high cumulative risk of Lynch syndrome. Clin Genet. 2005;68(6):533–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Harley I, Rosen B, Risch HA, et al. Ovarian cancer risk is associated with a common variant in the promoter sequence of the mismatch repair gene MLH1. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;109(3):384–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Eng C. Will the real Cowden syndrome please stand up: revised diagnostic criteria. J Med Genet. 2000;37(11):828–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tan MH, Mester J, Peterson C, et al. A clinical scoring system for selection of patients for PTEN mutation testing is proposed on the basis of a prospective study of 3042 probands. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88(1):42–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pilarski R, Stephens JA, Noss R, Fisher JL, Prior TW. Predicting PTEN mutations: an evaluation of Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome clinical features. J Med Genet. 2011;48(8):505–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Orloff MS, Eng C. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in the PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome. Oncogene. 2008;27(41):5387–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Shulman LP. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC): clinical features and counseling for BRCA1 and BRCA2, Lynch syndrome, Cowden syndrome, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2010;37(1):109–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Allain DC. Genetic counseling and testing for common hereditary breast cancer syndromes: a paper from the 2007 William Beaumont hospital symposium on molecular pathology. J Mol Diagn. 2008;10(5):383–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Saglam O. Peutz-Jegher syndrome in gynecologic pathology. J Clin Exp Pathol. 2011;1(2):e102.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Giardiello FM, Brensinger JD, Tersmette AC, et al. Very high risk of cancer in familial Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2000;119(6):1447–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lancaster JM, Powell CB, Kauff ND, et al. Society of Gynecologic Oncologists Education Committee statement on risk assessment for inherited gynecologic cancer predispositions. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;107(2):159–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Robson ME, Storm CD, Weitzel J, Wollins DS, Offit K. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement update: genetic and genomic testing for cancer susceptibility. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(5):893–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Daly MB, Axilbund JE, Buys S, et al. Genetic/familial high-risk assessment: breast and ovarian. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2010;8(5):562–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Force USPST. Genetic risk assessment and BRCA mutation testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility: recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(5):355–61.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bulletins ACoP. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(4):957–66.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Karlan BY, Berchuck A, Mutch D. The role of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility in gynecologic practice. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110(1):155–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Resnick KE, Hampel H, Fishel R, Cohn DE. Current and emerging trends in Lynch syndrome identification in women with endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;114(1):128–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Garg K, Soslow RA. Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) and endometrial carcinoma. J Clin Pathol. 2009;62(8):679–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kwon JS, Daniels MS, Sun CC, Lu KH. Preventing future cancers by testing women with ovarian cancer for BRCA mutations. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(4):675–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Amir E, Freedman OC, Seruga B, Evans DG. Assessing women at high risk of breast cancer: a review of risk assessment models. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2010;102(10):680–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chen S, Wang W, Lee S, et al. Prediction of germline mutations and cancer risk in the Lynch syndrome. JAMA. 2006;296(12):1479–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Parmigiani G, Berry D, Aguilar O. Determining carrier probabilities for breast cancer-susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;62(1):145–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Frank TS, Deffenbaugh AM, Reid JE, et al. Clinical characteristics of individuals with germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: analysis of 10,000 individuals. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(6):1480–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Grover S, Syngal S. Risk assessment, genetic testing, and management of Lynch syndrome. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2010;8(1):98–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lynch HT, Lynch PM, Lanspa SJ, Snyder CL, Lynch JF, Boland CR. Review of the Lynch syndrome: history, molecular genetics, screening, differential diagnosis, and medicolegal ramifications. Clin Genet. 2009;76(1):1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Easton DF, Deffenbaugh AM, Pruss D, et al. A systematic genetic assessment of 1,433 sequence variants of unknown clinical significance in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer-predisposition genes. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;81(5):873–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Buys SS, Partridge E, Black A, et al. Effect of screening on ovarian cancer mortality: the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2011;305(22):2295–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dove-Edwin I, Boks D, Goff S, et al. The outcome of endometrial carcinoma surveillance by ultrasound scan in women at risk of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma and familial colorectal carcinoma. Cancer. 2002;94(6):1708–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Auranen A, Joutsiniemi T. A systematic review of gynecological cancer surveillance in women belonging to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) families. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2011;90(5):437–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Domchek SM, Friebel TM, Singer CF, et al. Association of risk-reducing surgery in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers with cancer risk and mortality. JAMA. 2010;304(9):967–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rebbeck TR, Kauff ND, Domchek SM. Meta-analysis of risk reduction estimates associated with risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101(2):80–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kauff ND, Domchek SM, Friebel TM, et al. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for the prevention of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and gynecologic cancer: a multicenter, prospective study. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(8):1331–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Colgan TJ, Boerner SL, Murphy J, Cole DE, Narod S, Rosen B. Peritoneal lavage cytology: an assessment of its value during prophylactic oophorectomy. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;85(3):397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Narod SA, Risch H, Moslehi R, et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of hereditary ovarian cancer. Hereditary Ovarian Cancer Clinical Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(7):424–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Schmeler KM, Lynch HT, Chen LM, et al. Prophylactic surgery to reduce the risk of gynecologic cancers in the Lynch syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(3):261–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Chen LM, Yang KY, Little SE, Cheung MK, Caughey AB. Gynecologic cancer prevention in Lynch syndrome/hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110(1):18–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Women’s Cancer ProgramDana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations