Inflammatory Markers and Mortality in Critical Lower Limb Ischemia

  • Anders GottsäterEmail author


In atherosclerotic vascular disease, endothelial dysfunction is induced by risk factors such as arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and tobacco. Inflammatory mechanisms and inflammatory cytokines play important roles in all of these mechanisms, and the different steps in atherogenesis involve cytokines as inflammatory promoters stimulating the expression of proatherogenic genes in endothelial cells [1, 2]. Important cytokines are for example tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) [3], neopterin [4], and interleukin (IL)-6 [3, 5]. Expression of the immune mediator CD40 ligand is increased in atherogenesis [6, 7], and the prostaglandin-like isoprostanes [8, 9] are markers of lipid peroxidation also believed to contribute to atherosclerosis and thrombosis [10].


Inflammatory Mediator Inflammatory Marker Peripheral Arterial Disease Peripheral Artery Disease Critical Limb Ischemia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Sciences, Vascular CenterLund University, Skåne University HospitalMalmöSweden

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