• Shao Foong Chong
  • Michael Brown


You are a hospital doctor working in a high prevalence HIV area presented with a severely ill patient with haemoptysis, headache, and fever. You conduct a relevant history and examination to help focus your differential diagnoses. Prompts are provided to elicit important opportunistic infections associated with HIV infection. It is noted that there is both clinical and immunological staging of HIV. Working in a developing world rural setting, you are limited with what tests can be used. However, there are global WHO guidelines for antiretroviral therapy. The problems of HIV/TB co-infection and multi-drug resistance in these areas are illuminated. The case ends in a global summary of the AIDS epidemic and international strategies that are taking place to curtail its spread.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Opportunistic Infection Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Cryptococcal Meningitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Emergency MedicineSt George’s HospitalTooting, LondonUK
  2. 2.Consultant Physician, Hospital for Tropical DiseasesLondonUK

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