Epidemiology of Stone Disease in Australia
Despite the significant morbidity and considerable financial burden associated with stone disease, there is a surprising lack of published epidemiological data on renal stone disease in Australia. This is unfortunate, given our country’s unique racial diversity, geography, climate, and diet. Collating data from government hospital admissions in 2006–2007 showed an estimated annual incidence of upper urinary tract calculi of 131 cases/100,000, and this rate has remained steady over the past decade. This contrasts the upward trend in the number of stone procedures performed over the same period and the increasing use of endoscopic interventions compared with other stone treatment techniques.
KeywordsUrinary tract stone Aborigines Epidemiology Oxalate Hypercalciuria Incidence Urinary stones Oxalates Urates Prevalence Geographical variation Stone composition Urine composition Staghorn stones Calcium oxalate stones Calcium phosphate stones Infection stones Uric acid stones Cystine stones Practice patterns Pediatric stones Age-related stone formation Recurrence Stone site
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