Epidemiology of Stone Disease in Australia

  • Ming-Chak Lee
  • Simon Virgil Bariol


Despite the significant morbidity and considerable financial burden associated with stone disease, there is a surprising lack of published epidemiological data on renal stone disease in Australia. This is unfortunate, given our country’s unique racial diversity, geography, climate, and diet. Collating data from government hospital admissions in 2006–2007 showed an estimated annual incidence of upper urinary tract calculi of 131 cases/100,000, and this rate has remained steady over the past decade. This contrasts the upward trend in the number of stone procedures performed over the same period and the increasing use of endoscopic interventions compared with other stone treatment techniques.


Urinary tract stone Aborigines Epidemiology Oxalate Hypercalciuria Incidence Urinary stones Oxalates Urates Prevalence Geographical variation Stone composition Urine composition Staghorn stones Calcium oxalate stones Calcium phosphate stones Infection stones Uric acid stones Cystine stones Practice patterns Pediatric stones Age-related stone formation Recurrence Stone site 


  1. 1.
    Pearle MS, Calhoun EA, Curhan GC. Urologic diseases in America project: urolithiasis. J Urol. 2005;173:848–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brener ZZ, Winchester JF, Salman H, Bergman M. Nephrolithiasis: evaluation and management. South Med J. 2011;104(2):133–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Curhan GC. Epidemiology of stone disease. Urol Clin North Am. 2007;34:287–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McNeill F, McNeill J, Brooks AJ. Management of kidney stone disease in New South Wales: an observational study. Med J Aust. 2008;189:596–7.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Australia Bureau of Statistics. Australian historical population statistics. Data cube: excel spreadsheet cat. No. 3105.0.65.001, last viewed 4 Apr 2011. 2008.
  6. 6.
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australian hospital statistics 1996–2007. Canberra: AIHW; 2010. Data cube, last viewed 4 Apr 2011,
  7. 7.
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australian hospital statistics 2000–2007. Canberra: AIHW; 2010. Data cube, last viewed 4 Apr 2011,
  8. 8.
    Medicare Australia. Medicare item reports. Canberra, last viewed 4 Apr. 2011.
  9. 9.
    Lee MC, Bariol SV. Changes in stone management in Australia. BJU Int. 2011;52:29–33.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lavan JN, Neale FC, Posen S. Urinary calculi. Clinical, biochemical and radiological studies in 619 patients. Med J Aust. 1971;2:1049–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baker PW, Coyle P, Bais R, Rofe AM. Influence of season, age and sex on renal stone formation in South Australia. Med J Aust. 1993;159:390–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Farago C. Urolithiasis in the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children and adults of central Australia. Australas Radiol. 1987;21:300–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carson PJ, Brewster DR. Unique pattern of urinary tract calculi in Australian Aboriginal children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2003;39:325–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Baldwin DN, Spencer JL, Jeffries-Stokes CA. Carbohydrate intolerance and kidney stones in children in the Goldfields. J Paediatr Child Health. 2003;39:381–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyWestmead HospitalWestmeadAustralia

Personalised recommendations