Energy Systems of Complex Buildings pp 147-169 | Cite as

# Systems Approach to Energy-Ecological Analysis of Complex Buildings

## Abstract

The mathematical model of the balance of direct energy consumption of energy carriers in complex buildings is based on Leontief’s input–output analysis [7]. Energy carriers are divided into those produced inside complex buildings, and possibly supplemented from outside, and energy carriers entirely supplied from outside. Direct consumption of energy carriers does not, however, comprise all the energy required for the needs of complex buildings, because the fuels, materials, and energy carriers, supplied to them, are changed by energy consumption due to: the extraction of primary energy and raw materials; the processing of primary energy to final energy carriers; and the transport and consumption of devices for gaining and processing energy carriers.The balance of cumulative exergy consumption is also expressed by the “input–output analysis”, assuming that the connections between complex buildings and the entire economy of a country are weak. This means that in the balance of cumulative energy consumption in complex buildings the indices of cumulative energy consumption concerning the input data (e.g., fuels and water) are assumed to be quantities known a priori, equal to the average values for the whole country. The mathematical model of the balance of cumulative emissions of complex buildings may be formulated based on analogical assumptions. A complete thermo-ecological analysis should also include the depletion of non-renewable energy resources. This may be expressed by the so-called thermo-ecological cost, based on the balance of cumulative exergy consumption. The thermo-ecological cost expresses the cumulative exergy consumption of non-renewable natural resources, including their additional consumption due to the necessity of compensating the environmental losses caused by the release of harmful emissions connected with the existence of complex buildings. Balances of the thermo-ecological costs of complex buildings are also based on input–output analysis, taking into account the principle of weak connections. Systems approach, similarly based on input–output analysis may be applied for the assessment of the system effects of the rationalization of energy management in complex buildings. The input values in this analysis are the results of thermodynamic process analysis concerning the individual consumers of energy carriers or the process of producing energy carriers.

### Keywords

Cogeneration### References

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