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Immunocompromised Patients

  • Hilary Humphreys
  • Bob Winter
  • Mical Paul
Chapter

Abstract

The ominous prognosis of cancer patients with or without neutropenia in need of critical care has led to reservations with regard to admission of cancer patients to the ICU. However, significant improvements in ICU and in-hospital survival of cancer patients in ICU have been demonstrated in studies in recent years [1–4]. Risk factors for mortality have shifted from those related to the underlying condition to those related to the severity of acute illness similar to other critically-ill patients. Neutropenia per se and the underlying malignancy (solid and hematological) do not have an impact on the outcome of patients in ICU. Recent chemotherapy is associated rather with improved survival [3, 5–7], while organ dysfunction, severity of disease scores, need for vasopressor treatment, need for mechanical ventilation immediately or after noninvasive ventilation, no definite diagnosis and a non-infectious diagnosis are associated with mortality [1–3, 8]. Invasive aspergillosis is also associated with very high mortality rates in ICU (see below). In several studies, admission to ICU in the early stages of sepsis or other acute event was associated with better survival than admission later, after development of organ dysfunction. Performance status is perhaps the most important and only variable relating to the underlying condition that is correlated with ICU death. The prognosis remains guarded for certain cancer patients, including patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with active uncontrolled graft versus host disease, those with relapse of the primary disease after allogeneic HSCT and special cases of solid cancer including pulmonary carcinomatous lymphangitis and carcinomatous meningitis with coma [9].

Keywords

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Invasive Aspergillosis Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Lung Transplant Recipient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hilary Humphreys
    • 1
  • Bob Winter
    • 2
  • Mical Paul
    • 3
  1. 1.Beaumont Hospital The Royal College of Surgeons in IrelandDublinIreland
  2. 2.Queen’s Medical Centre University Hospital NottinghamNottinghamUK
  3. 3.Rabin Medical Center Beilinson Hospital Unit of Infectious Diseases Sackler Faculty of Medicine Tel-Aviv UniversityPetach Tikva/Tel-AvivIsrael

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