Dutch and German Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis Have Antibodies to Klebsiella

  • Alan Ebringer
  • Alan Ebringer


In the early 1980s, the Immunology Unit of King’s College had shown that there were elevated levels of antibodies to the Gram-negative bowel microbe Klebsiella in patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis.


Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Ankylose Spondylitis Proteus Mirabilis Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay Dutch Patient 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Ebringer
    • 1
  • Alan Ebringer
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.King’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.UCH School of MedicineMiddlesex HospitalLondonUK
  3. 3.Division of Life SciencesKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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