Advertisement

Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a safe diagnostic tool and over 500 million diagnostic studies have been performed safely up to now. However, there have been at least 15 published cases of patient deaths associated with MRI scanning; 10 cases with implanted pacemakers [1–5], 2 patients with an insulin pump [3], 1 patient with a neuro-stimulator, 1 patient with an aneurysm clip [6], and 1 child killed by an oxygen tank [7]. Additionally, hundreds of severe burns [8] or injuries due to ferromagnetic projectiles have also been reported. The loud noises (up to 120 dBA) induced by the fast switching gradient fields make ear protections mandatory for all patient. The sources of all these risks are the electromagnetic fields of the MRI scanner.

Keywords

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Acute Kidney Injury Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Specific Absorption Rate Aneurysm Clip 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Irnich W, et al. Do we need pacemakers resistant to magnetic resonance imaging? Europace. 2005;7(4):353–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Duru F, et al. Pacing in magnetic resonance imaging environment: clinical and technical considerations on compatibility. Eur Heart J. 2001;22(2):113–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    The Joint Commission. Preventing MRI accident and injuries. Sentinel Event Alert, 14 Feb 2008.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Avery JK. Loss prevention case of the month. Not my responsibility! J Tenn Med Assoc. 1988;81(8):523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schiebler M, Kaut-Watson C, Williams DL. Both sedated and critically ill require monitoring during MRI (survey).MR. 1994;Winter:41–5.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Klucznik RP, et al. Placement of a ferromagnetic intracerebral aneurysm clip in a magnetic field with a fatal outcome. Radiology. 1993;187(3):855–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boy, 6, Dies of skull injury during M.R.I. The New York Times, 31 July 2001.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hardy 2nd PT, Weil KM. A review of thermal MR injuries. Radiol Technol. 2010;81(6):606–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    ACR. ACR manual on contrast media (Version 8), American College of Radiology, Editor; 2012. Available from: http://www.acr.org/Quality-Safety/Resources/Contrast-Manual. Accessed on 9, 2012).
  10. 10.
    Chakeres DW, et al. Effect of static magnetic field exposure of up to 8 Tesla on sequential human vital sign measurements. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2003;18(3):346–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Price DL, et al. Investigation of acoustic noise on 15 MRI scanners from 0.2 T to 3 T. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2001;13(2):288–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kugel H, et al. Hazardous situation in the MR bore: induction in ECG leads causes fire. Eur Radiol. 2003;13(4):690–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Patel MR, et al. Acute myocardial infarction: safety of cardiac MR imaging after percutaneous revascularization with stents. Radiology. 2006;240(3):674–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shellock FG. Reference manual for magnetic resonance safety, implants, and devices, 2011 edition. Los Angeles: Biomedical Research Publishing Group; 2011.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Levine GN, et al. Safety of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiovascular devices: an American heart association scientific statement from the committee on diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterization, council on clinical cardiology, and the council on cardiovascular radiology and intervention: endorsed by the American college of cardiology foundation, the North American society for cardiac imaging, and the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Circulation. 2007;116(24):2878–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wilkoff BL, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a pacemaker system designed for the magnetic resonance environment. Heart Rhythm. 2011;8(1):65–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sommer T, et al. Strategy for safe performance of extrathoracic magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla in the presence of cardiac pacemakers in non-pacemaker-dependent patients: a prospective study with 115 examinations. Circulation. 2006;114(12):1285–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shinbane JS, Colletti PM, Shellock FG. MR in patients with pacemakers and ICDs: defining the issues. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2007;9(1):5–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Naehle CP, et al. Safety, feasibility, and diagnostic value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverters/defibrillators at 1.5 T. Am Heart J. 2011;161(6):1096–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Luechinger R. In vivo heating of pacemaker leads during magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Heart J. 2005;26(4):376–83. discussion 325–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Luechinger R, et al. Safety considerations for magnetic resonance imaging of pacemaker and ICD patients. Herzschr Elektrophys. 2004;15(1):73–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Roguin A, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in individuals with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices. Europace. 2008;10:336–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kanal E, et al. ACR guidance document for safe MR practices: 2007. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(6):1447–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cowper SE, et al. Scleromyxoedema-like cutaneous diseases in renal-dialysis patients. Lancet. 2000;356(9234):1000–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Grobner T. Gadolinium – a specific trigger for the development of nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21(4):1104–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    FDA. FDA drug safety communication: new warnings for using gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with kidney dysfunction. 2010. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm223966.htm. Accessed on 9, 2012.
  27. 27.
    Wahl A, et al. Safety and feasibility of high-dose dobutamine-atropine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance for diagnosis of myocardial ischaemia: experience in 1000 consecutive cases. Eur Heart J. 2004;25(14):1230–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Karamitsos TD, et al. Feasibility and safety of high-dose adenosine perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2010;12:66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kramer CM, et al. Standardized cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) protocols, society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance: board of trustees task force on standardized protocols. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2008;10:35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Biomedical EngineeringUniversity and ETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations