Advertisement

Inherited Cardiomyopathies

  • Rory O’Hanlon
  • Raad H. MohiaddinEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

In order to plan optimal management and treatment strategies in patients with a suspected cardiomyopathy, the key initial factor is to establish the diagnosis and underlying etiology at an early stage. While many patients will present with symptoms and demonstrable ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography, often the underlying cause is not apparent, thus necessitating many “routine” invasive and non-invasive investigations such as angiography, echocardiography, holter monitoring, treadmill testing, and nuclear studies. There has been considerable progress in recent years in the development of imaging technologies which are now able to characterize a much wider number of cardiomyopathic processes than ever before in a non-invasive manner. The advent of gadolinium enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has dramatically changed the non-invasive work-up of patients with a suspected cardiomyopathy. In a single scan setting it is now possible to provide a comprehensive assessment of both ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies providing detailed information on cardiac anatomy, function, tissue characterization, assessment of epicardial and microvascular perfusion, valvular flows, and coronary and peripheral angiography (Fig. 13.1). This comprehensive examination can be completed in a short period of time, typically 30–45 min, without the need for prolonged breath holds (5–10 s) or 2onizing radiation. establish definitive diagnoses with the greatest degree of clarity, helps guide and monitor therapeutic response, and assists in optimal risk stratification. Gadolinium based contrast agents are remarkably safe and the incidence of adverse reactions or nephrogenic systemic sclerosis (NSF) is exceedingly low. Follow up imaging to monitor progression and response to interventions can be performed safely and without any concern regarding cumulative radiation exposure.

Keywords

Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Late Gadolinium Enhancement Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Cardiac Sarcoidosis Late Gadolinium Enhancement Imaging 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

Movie 13.1

Mid to apical HCM with significant apical aneurysm formation due to obstruction. Wall thinning in the aneurysmal segment noted (AVI 1728 kb)

Movie 13.2

Mid ventricular HCM with apical aneurysm formation (AVI 1728 kb)

Movie 13.3

LVOT view of basal and mid septal asymmetrical hypertrophy secondary to HCM with cavity obliteration in systole. Note no evidence of LVOT obstruction or systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (AVI 1584 kb)

Movie 13.4

Four chamber view of marked asymmetrical HCM with near cavity obliteration in systole. No LVOT obstruction or SAM seen. The RV is also free of hypertrophy (AVI 1584 kb)

Movie 13.5

Short axis view in mid ventricle of HCM with marked asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and relative septal hypokinesis (AVI 1321 kb)

Movie 13.6

Apical HCM in two-chamber view with more marked focal apical inferior wall hypertrophy and apical obliteration in systole noted (AVI 1394 kb)

Movie 13.7

LVOT view of apical HCM with mid to apical obliteration in systole. No aneurysm seen. Note the presence of septal wall clefts (AVI 1394 kb)

Movie 13.8

Four chamber view of apical HCM with asymmetrical apical hypertrophy affecting both LV and RV apical segments. Apical obliteration of LV and RV noted in systole (AVI 1394 kb)

Movie 13.9

Dilated cardiomyopathy: Four chamber view demonstrating markedly dilated LV and RV with severe global hypokinesis and reduced EF. Note the increased trabecular pattern, a common feature of DCM. Mitral and tricuspid annular dilatation with mild to moderate central mitral and tricuspid valve regurgitation (AVI 1674 kb)

Movie 13.10

Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Two chamber view of DCM with Lv dilatation and severe global hypokinesis. Left atrial dilatation seen. The left atrial appendage is also seen in this cine (AVI 1674 kb)

218193_1_En_13_MOESM11_ESM.mpg (233 kb)
Movie 13.11 SSFP long axis of ARVC demonstrating a dilated RV with reduced RVEF and focal dyskinesis and aneurysmal dilatation of the RV free wall. Reduced left ventricular systolic function also noted (MPG 233 kb)
218193_1_En_13_MOESM12_ESM.avi (10.7 mb)
Movie 13.12 RVOT view in a case of ARVC demonstrating significant aneurysmal dilatation of the RVOT (AVI 10986 kb)
Movie 13.13

Four chamber view of LVNC demonstrating prominent lateral and apical trabeculations with moderate reduction in LV systolic function. The ratio of non-compact to compact myocardium in these regions is >2:1 in systole and >2.3:1 in diastole (AVI 1430 kb)

Movie 13.14

LVOT view of LVNC demonstrating marked trabecular pattern in the inferior and inferolateral walls from base to apex. Note the mitral papillary muscles attach into non-compact myocardium (AVI 1430 kb)

Movie 13.15

Representative SA view of LVNC demonstrating prominent trabecular meshwork in the lateral and inferior walls meeting criteria for LVNC in both systole and diastole (AVI 1430 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    CMR image acquisition protocols. www.scmr.org.
  2. 2.
    Maceira AM, Prasad SK, Khan M, Pennell DJ. Normalized left ventricular systolic and diastolic function by steady state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2006;8:417–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maceira AM, Prasad SK, Khan M, Pennell DJ. Reference right ventricular systolic and diastolic function normalized to age, gender and body surface area from steady-state free precession cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Eur Heart J. 2006;27:2879–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson LJ, Holden S, Davis B, et al. Cardiovascular T2-star (*) magnetic resonance for the early diagnosis of myocardial iron overload. Eur Heart J. 2001;21:2171–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Caruthers SD, Lin SJ, Brown P, et al. Practical value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for clinical quantification of aortic valve stenosis. Comparison with echocardiography. Circulation. 2003;108:2236–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rademakers FE, Bogaert J. Cardiac dysfunction in heart failure with normal ejection fraction: MRI measurements. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2006;49:215–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Maron BJ, Gardin JM, Flack JM, et al. Prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a general population of young adults: echocardiographic analysis of 4111 subjects in a CARDIA study. Circulation. 1995;92:785–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maron BJ, McKenna WJ, Danielson GK, et al. American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology Clinical Expert consensus document on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A report of the American College of Cardiology Task Force on clinical expert consensus documents and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for practice guidelines committee to develop an expert consensus document on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:1687–713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Elliott P, Andersson B, Arbustini E, et al. Classification of the cardiomyopathies: a position statement from the European society of cardiology working group on myocardial and pericardial diseases. Eur Heart J. 2009;29:270–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Klues HG, Schiffers A, Maron BJ. Phenotypic spectrum and patterns of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: morphologic observations and significance as assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography in 600 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;26:1699–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sipola P, Magga J, Husso M, et al. Cardiac MRI assessed left ventricular hypertrophy in differentiating hypertensive heart disease from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attributable to a sarcomeric gene mutation. Eur Radiol. 2011;21(7):1383–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Basavarajaiah S, Boraita A, Whyte G, et al. Ethnic differences in left ventricular remodeling in highly-trained athletes relevance to differentiating physiologic left ventricular hypertrophy from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51:2256–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rickers C, Wilke NM, Jerosch-Herold M, et al. Utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of hypertrophic ­cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2005;112:855–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moon JCC, Fisher NG, McKenna WJ, et al. Detection of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with nondiagnostic echocardiography. Heart. 2004;90:645–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pennell DJ, Sechtem UP, Higgins CB, et al. Society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance; Working Group on Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance of the European Society of Cardiology. Clinical indications for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR): consensus panel report. Eur Heart J. 2004;25:1940–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Smedema JP, van Kroonenburgh JPG, Snoep G, et al. Cardiac sarcoidosis in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging and single photon-emission computed tomography dual-isotope scintingraphy. Circulation. 2004;110:e529–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Elliott PM, Poloniecki J, Dickie S, et al. Sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: identification of high risk patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36:2212–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maron BJ, Shen WK, Link MS, et al. Efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for the prevention of sudden death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:365–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maron BJ, Spirito P, Shen W-K, et al. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and prevention of sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. JAMA. 2007;298:405–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moon JC, McKenna WJ, McCrohan JA, et al. Toward clinical risk assessment in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with gadolinium cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:1561–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Varnava AM, Elliott PM, Sharma S, et al. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the interrelation of disarray, fibrosis, and small vessel disease. Heart. 2000;84:476–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kuribayashi T, Roberts WC. Myocardial disarray at junction of ventricular septum and left and right ventricular free walls in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 1992;70:1333–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kawara T, Derksen R, de Groot JR, et al. Activation delay after premature stimulation in chronically diseased human myocardium relates to the architecture of interstitial fibrosis. Circulation. 2001;104:3069–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Adabag AS, Maron BJ, Applebaum E, et al. Occurrence and frequency of arrhythmias in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in relation to delayed enhancement on cardiovascular magnetic resonance. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51:1369–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dimitrow PP, Klimeczek P, Vliegenthart R, et al. Late hyperenhancement in gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: comparison of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with and without sustained ventricular tachycardia. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2008;24:77–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harris KM, Spirito P, Maron MS, et al. Prevalence, clinical profile, and significance of left ventricular remodeling in the end-stage phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2006;114:216–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cecchi F, Olivotto I, Gistri R, et al. Coronary microvascular dysfunction and prognosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1027–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Olivotto I, Cecci F, Gistri R, et al. Relevance of coronary microvascular flow impairment to long-term remodelling and systolic dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47:1043–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sipola P, Lauerma K, Husso-Saastamoinen M, et al. First-pass MR imaging in the assessment of perfusion impairment in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the Asp175Asn mutation of the alpha-tropomyosin gene. Radiology. 2002;226:129–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Knaapen P, van Dockum WG, Gotte MJW, et al. Regional heterogeneity of resting perfusion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is related to delayed contrast enhancement but not to systolic function: a PET and MRI study. J Nucl Cardiol. 2006;13:660–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Petersen SE, Jerosch-Herold M, Hudsmith L, et al. Evidence for microvascular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: new insights from multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation. 2007;115:2418–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sotgia B, Sciagra R, Olivotto I, et al. Spatial relationship between coronary microvascular dysfunction and delayed contrast enhancement in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Nucl Med. 2008;49:1090–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Olivotto I, Maron MS, Autore C, et al. Assessment and significance of left ventricular mass by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:559–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Maron MS, Hauser TH, Dubrow E, et al. Right ventricular involvement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2007;100:1293–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Abdel-Aty H, Cocker M, Strohm O, et al. Abnormalities in T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance images of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: regional distribution and relation to late gadolinium enhancement and severity of hypertrophy. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;28:242–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    O’ Hanlon R, Grasso AE, Roughton M, et al. Prognostic significance of myocardial fibrosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(11):867–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bruder O, Wagner A, Jensen CJ, et al. Myocardial scar visualized by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging predicts major adverse events in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(11):875–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Taylor MR, Carniel E, Mestroni L. Cardiomyopathy, familial dilated. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2006;1:27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bart BA, Shaw LK, McCants Jr CB, et al. Clinical determinants of mortality in patients with angiographically diagnosed ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;30:1002–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Casolo G, Minneci S, Manta R, et al. Identification of the ischaemic etiology of heart failure by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: diagnostic accuracy of late gadolinium enhancement. Am Heart J. 2006;151:101–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    McCrohon JA, Moon JC, Prasad SK, et al. Differentiation of heart failure related to dilated cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease using gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Circulation. 2003;108:54–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bulkley BH, Hutchins GM, Baileyy I, et al. Thallium 201 imaging and gated cardiac blood pool scans in patients with ischemic and idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy: a clinical and pathological study. Circulation. 1977;55:753–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Barkhausen J, Hunold P, Jochims M, et al. Imaging of myocardial perfusion with magnetic resonance. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2004;19:750–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nazarian S, Bluemke DA, Lardo AC, et al. Magnetic resonance assessment of the substrate for inducible ventricular tachycardia in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2005;112:2821–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Assomull RG, Prasad SK, Lyne J, et al. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance, fibrosis, and prognosis in dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:1977–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wu KC, Weiss RG, Thiemann DR, et al. Late gadolinium enhancement by cardiovascular magnetic resonance heralds and adverse prognosis in nonischemic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51:2414–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cho JR, Park S, Choi BW, et al. Delayed enhancement magnetic resonance imaging is a significant prognostic factor in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Circ J. 2010;74:476–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Thiene G, Nava A, Corrado D, Rossi L, Pennelli N. Right ventricular cardiomyopathy and sudden death in young people. N Engl J Med. 1988;318:129–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    McKenna WJ, Thiene G, Nava A, et al. Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Task force of the Working Group Myocardial and Pericardial Disease of the European Society of Cardiology and of the Scientific Council on Cardiomyopathies of the International Society and Federation of Cardiology. Br Heart J. 1994;71:215–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Corrado D, Basso C, Thiene G, et al. Spectrum of clinicopathologic manifestation of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia: a multicenter study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;6:1512–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Thiene G, Nava A, Corrado D, et al. Right ventricular cardiomyopathy and sudden death in young people. N Engl J Med. 1988;318:129–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Casolo G, Di Cesare E, Molinari G, et al. Diagnostic work up of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Consensus statement. Radiol Med (Torino). 2004;108:39–55.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hamid MS, Norman M, Quraishi A, et al. Prospective evaluation of relatives for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia reveals a need to broaden diagnostic criteria. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;40:1445–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Burke A, Farb A, Tashko G, et al. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and fatty replacement of the right ventricular myocardium: are they different diseases? Circulation. 1998;97:1571–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bomma C, Rutberg J, Tandri H, et al. Misdiagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2004;15:300–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Tandri H, Saranathan M, Rodriguez R, et al. Noninvasive detection of myocardial fibrosis in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy using delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;45:98–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sen-Chowdry S, Prasad SK, Syrris P, et al. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy revisited: comparison with task force criteria and genotype. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:2132–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sen-Chowdry S, Syrris P, Ward D, et al. Clinical and genetic characterisation of families with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy provides novel insights into patterns of disease expression. Circulation. 2007;115:1710–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Marcus FI, McKenna WJ, Sherill D, et al. Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia. Proposed modification of the task force criteria. Eur Heart J. 2010;31:806–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Protonotarios N, Anastasakis A, Antoniades L, et al. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia on the basis of the revised diagnostic criteria in affected families with desmosomal mutations. Eur Heart J. 2011;32(9):1097–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bluemke DA, Krupinski EA, Ovitt T, et al. MRI imaging of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: morphological findings and intraobserver reliability. Cardiology. 2003;99:153–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Jenni R, Wyss CA, Oechslin EN, et al. Isolated ventricular noncompaction is associated with coronary microcirculatory dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39(3):450–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Burke A, Mont E, Kutys MS, et al. Left ventricular noncompaction: a pathological study of 14 cases. Hum Pathol. 2005;36:408–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jenni R, Rojas J, Oechslin E. Isolated noncompaction of the myocardium. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:966–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Oechslin EN, Attenhofer Jost CH, Rojas JR, et al. Long-term follow-up of 34 adults with isolated left ventricular noncompaction: a distinct cardiomyopathy with poor prognosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36:493–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lewin M. Left ventricular noncompaction: travelling the road from diagnosis to outcomes. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2010;23:54–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chin TK, Perloff JK, Williams RG, et al. Isolated noncompaction of left ventricular myocardium. A study of eight cases. Circulation. 1990;82:507–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jenni R, Oechslin E, Schneider J, et al. Echocardiographic and pathoanatomical characteristics of isolated left ventricular non-compaction: a step towards classification as a distinct cardiomyopathy. Heart. 2001;86:666–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Stollberger C, Finsterer J, Blazek G. Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction and association with additional cardiac abnormalities and neuromuscular disorders. Am J Cardiol. 2002;90:899–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kohli SK, Pantazis AA, Shah JS, et al. Diagnosis of left-ventricular non-compaction in patients with left-ventricular systolic dysfunction: time for a reappraisal of diagnostic criteria? Eur Heart J. 2007;29:89–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Petersen SE, Selvanayagam JB, Wiesmann F, et al. Left ventricular non-compaction: insights from cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46:101–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jacquier A, Thuny F, Jop B, et al. Measurement of trabeculated left ventricular mass using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of left ventricular noncompaction. Eur Heart J. 2010;31:1098–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Thunt F, Jacquier A, Jop B, et al. Assessment of left ventricular non-compaction in adults: side-by-side comparison of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with echocardiography. Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;103:150–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nucifora G, Aquaro GD, Pingitore A, et al. Myocardial fibrosis in isolated left ventricular non-compaction and its relation to disease severity. Eur Heart J. 2011;13:170–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CardiologySt. Vincent’s University HospitalDublinIreland
  2. 2.Centre for Cardiovascular Magnetic ResonanceBlackrock ClinicDublinIreland
  3. 3.Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance UnitRoyal Brompton Hospital and National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations