Heart Failure pp 461-476 | Cite as

Patient Selection for Cardiac Transplantation



Congestive heart failure (HF) remains one of the leading causes of hospitalization in adults in the United States. The direct and indirect costs associated with this illness are estimated at $32 billion for 2013 and projected to reach $70 billion by 2030. The majority of this financial burden arises from the over one million hospitalizations that occur annually for acute decompensated HF (Go et al. Circulation 127:e6–245, 2013). Advances in pharmacologic and device therapy for HF, and their associated reductions in morbidity and mortality, have led to increasing numbers of patients progressing to advanced heart failure. Of the nearly six million adults with congestive heart failure, it is has been estimated that 20 % have ACC Stage D disease—the group of patients who should be considered for advanced heart failure therapies. Unfortunately, this potential pool far exceeds the roughly 2300 cardiac transplantations that are performed yearly in the United States, and the 3700 performed worldwide, in each of the last several years (Stehlik et al. J Heart Lung Transplant 30:1078–94, 2011) .


Congestive Heart Failure Cardiac Transplantation Evaluation Donor-Recipient Matching Long Term Care Risk Stratification 


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© Springer-Verlag London 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of CardiologyMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

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