Embryology of Fetal Tissue

Chapter

Abstract

When the first ever clinical embryologist, Bob Edwards, saw the fertilization of a human oocyte in vitro he was witnessing not only a momentous event in clinical medicine but also the creation of totipotent stem cells [249]. At the point of fertilization and up to the point of early compaction, the blastomeres of the human embryo are generally considered to be totipotent stem cells. These totipotent stem cells can differentiate into all cell types and therefore have the ability to create a complete new individual [60]. It is possible that blastomeres are totipotent to enable correction of early developmental errors in the embryo [87]. The data on totipotent stem cells come from experimental embryology using animal embryos as the legal and ethical restrictions on human embryo experimentation restrict such work [84]. From this animal experimentation, it is known that totipotent stem cells can develop into endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm, germ cells, extraembryonic tissue, and trophoblast. In the mouse embryo, asymmetric divisions at the eight-cell stage result in two populations of cells [111]. The inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst then develops from cells positioned inside the embryo, and those cells on the outside of the embryo develop into the trophectoderm which subsequently develops into the placenta [58, 72, 203]. Two ICM cell types then develop [76] which are:

Keywords

Hepatitis Estrogen Adenoma Cortisol Flare 

References

  1. 1.
    Abbud-Filho M, Pavarino-Bertelli EC, Alvarenga MPS, Fernandes IMM, Toledo RA, Tajara EH, Savoldi-Bsrbosa M, Goldmann GH, Goloni-Bertollo EM. Systemic lupus erythematosus and microchimerism in autoimmunity. Transplant Proc. 2002;34:2951–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams KM, Lambert NC, Heimfeld S, Tylee TS, Pang JM, Erickson TD, Nelson JL. Male DNA in female donor apheresis and CD34-enriched products. Blood. 2003;102:3845–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adams KM, Yan Z, Stevens AM, Nelson JL. The changing maternal  «  self  »  hypothesis: a mechanism for maternal tolerance of the fetus. Placenta. 2007;28:378–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Mufti R, Lees C, Albaiges G, Hambley H, Nicolaides KH. Fetal cells in maternal blood of pregnancies with severe fetal growth restriction. Hum Reprod. 2000;15:218–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anagnostou A, Lee ES, Kessimian N, Levinson R, Steiner M. Erythropoietin has a mitogenic and positive chemotactic effect on endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990;87:5978–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anagnostou A, Liu Z, Manfred S, Chin K, Lee ES, Kessimian N, Noguchi CT. Erythropoietin receptor mRNA expression in human endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994;91:3974–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ando T, Imaizumi M, Graves PN, Unger P, Davies TF. Intrathyroidal fetal microchimerism in Graves’ disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:3315–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Apps R, Gardner L, Sharkey AM, Holmes N, Moffett A. A homodimeric complex of HLA-G on normal trophoblast cells modulates antigen-presenting cells via LILRB1. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:1924–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ariga H, Ohto H, Busch MP, Imamura S, Watson R, Reed W, Lee TH. Kinetics of fetal cellular and cell-free DNA in the maternal circulation during and after pregnancy: implications for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Transfusion. 2001;41:1524–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Artlett CM, Ramos R, Jiminez SA, Patterson K, Miller FW, Rider LG. Chimeric cells of maternal origin in juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Lancet. 2000;356:2155–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Artlett C, O’Hanlon T, Lopez A, Song Y, Miller F, Rider L. HLA-DQA1 is not an apparent risk factor for microchimerism in patients with various autoimmune diseases and in healthy individuals. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2567–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Asahara T, Murohara T, Sullivan A, Silver M, van der Zee R, Li T, Witzenbichler B, Schatteman G, Isner JM. Isolation of putative progenitor endothelial cells for angiogenesis. Science. 1997;275:964–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Asahara T, Masuda H, Takahashi T, Kalka C, Pastore C, Silver M, Kearne M, Magner M, Isner JM. Bone marrow origin of endothelial progenitor cells responsible for postnatal vasculogenesis in physiological and pathological neovascularization. Circ Res. 1999;85:221–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Askelund K, Liddell HS, Zanderigo AM, Fernando NS, Khong TY, Stone PR, Chamley LW. CD83(+) dendritic cells in the decidua of women with recurrent miscarriage and normal pregnancy. Placenta. 2004;25:140–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Athanassaki I, Aifantis Y, Makrygiannakis A, Koumantaki E, Vassiliadi S. Placental tissues from human miscarriages expresses class II HLA-DR antigens. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1985;34:281–7.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bailey AS, Fleming WH. Converging roads: evidence for an adult hemangioblast. Exp Hematol. 2003;31:987–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bailey AS, Jiang S, Afentoulis M, Baumann CI, Schroeder DA, Olson SB, Wong MH. Transplanted adult hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into functional endothelial cells. Blood. 2004;103:13–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bamforth SD, Braganca J, Eloranta JJ, Murdoch JN, Marques FI, Kranc KR, Farza H, Henderson DJ, Hurst HC, Bhattacharya S. Cardiac malformations, adrenal agenesis, neural crest defects and exencephaly in mice lacking Cited2, a new Tfap2 co-activator. Nat Genet. 2001;29:469–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bayes-Genis A, Bellosillo B, de la Calle O, Salido M, Roura S, Ristol FS, Soler C, Martinez M, Espinet B, Serrano S, Bayes de Luna A, Cinca J. Identification of male cardiomyocytes of extracardiac origin in the hearts of women with male progeny: male fetal cell microchimerism of the heart. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005;24:2179–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ben Brahim E, Mrad K, Driss M, Farah F, Oueslati H, Rezigua H, Ben RK. Placental metastasis of breast cancer. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2001;29(7–8):545–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Benirshke K, Kauffman P. Pathology of the human placenta. New York: Springer; 2000.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bhattacharya S, Michels CL, Leung MK, Arany ZP, Kung AL, Livingston DM. Functional role of p35srj, a novel p300/CBP binding protein, during transactivation by HIF-1. Genes Dev. 1999;13:64–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bianchi DW, Zickwolf GK, Weil GJ, Sylvester S, DeMaria MA. Male fetal progenitor cells persist in maternal blood for as long as 27 years postpartum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996;93:705–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bianchi DW, Williams JM, Sullivan LM, Hanson FW, Klinger KW, Shuber AP. PCR quantitation of fetal cells in maternal blood in normal and aneuploid pregnancies. Am J Hum Genet. 1997;61:822–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bianchi DW, Farina A, Weber W, Delli-Bovi LC, Deriso M, Williams JM, Klinger KW. Significant fetal-maternal hemorrhage after termination of pregnancy: implications for development of fetal cell microchimerism. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184:703–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bianchi DW, Romero R. Biological implications of bi-directional fetomaternal cell traffic: a summary of a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-sponsored conference. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2003;14:123–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Blakolmer K, Jaskiewicz K, Dunsford HA, Robson SC. Hematopoietic stem cell markers are expressed by ductal plate and bile duct cells in developing human liver. Hepatology. 1995;21:1510–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Blois SM, Ilarregu JM, Tometten M, Garcia M, Orsal AS, Cordo-Russo R, Toscano MA, Bianco GA, Kobelt P, Handjiski B. A pivotal role for galectin-1 in fetomaternal tolerance. Nat Med. 2007;13:1450–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Blois SM, Kammerer U, Soto CA, Tometten MC, Shaikly V, Barrientos G, Jurd R, Rukavina D, Thomson AW, Klapp BF. Dendritic cells: key to fetal tolerance? Biol Reprod. 2007;77:590–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bohnsack BL, Lai L, Dolle P, Hirschi KK. Signaling hierarchy downstream of retinoic acid that independently regulates vascular remodeling and endothelial cell proliferation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1345–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Borthwick GM, Holmes RC, Stirrat GM. Abnormal expression of class II MHC antigens in placentae from patients with pemphigoid gestationis: analysis of class II MHC subregion product expression. Placenta. 1988;9:81–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brodsky I, Baren M, Kahn SB, Lewis Jr G, Tellem M. Metastatic malignant melanoma from mother to fetus. Cancer. 1965;18:1048–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Byrd N, Becker S, Maye P, Narasimhaiah R, St-Jacques B, Zhang X, McMahon J, McMahon A, Grabel L. Hedgehog is required for murine yolk sac angiogenesis. Development. 2002;129:361–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Carlucci F, Priori R, Valesini G. Microchimerism in Sjogren’s syndrome. Rheumatology. 2003;42:486–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Caspi RR. Ocular autoimmunity: the price of privilege? Immunol Rev. 2006;213:23–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cha D, Khosrotehrani K, Kim Y, Stroh H, Bianchi DW, Johnson KL. Cervical cancer and microchimerism. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102:774–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chang CC, Ciubotariu R, Manavalan JS, Yuan J, Colovai AI, Piazza F, Lederman S, Colonna M, Cortesini R, Dallafavera R. Tolerization of dendritic cells by T(S) cells: the crucial role of inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:237–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chazaud C, Yamanaka Y, Pawson T, Rossant J. Early lineage segregation between epiblast and primitive endoderm in mouse blastocysts through the Grb2-MAPK pathway. Dev Cell. 2006;10:615–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chiu RWK, Poon LLM, Lau TK, Leung TN, Wong EMC, Lo YMD. Effects of blood-processing protocols on fetal and total DNA quantification in maternal plasma. Clin Chem. 2001;47:1607–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Choi K, Kennedy M, Kazarov A, Papadimitriou JC, Keller G. A common precursor for hematopoietic and endothelial cells. Development. 1998;125:725–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chung YS, Zhang WJ, Arentson E, Kingsley PD, Palis J, Choi K. Lineage analysis of the hemangioblast as defined by FLK1 and SCL expression. Development. 2002;129:5511–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Clotman F, Lannoy VJ, Reber M, Cereghini S, Cassiman D, Jacquemin P, Roskams T, Rousseau GG, Lemaigre FP. The onecut transcription factor HNF6 is required for normal development of the biliary tract. Development. 2002;129:1819–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Coffinier C, Gresh L, Fiette L, Tronche F, Schutz G, Babinet C, Pontoglio M, Yaniv M, Barra J. Bile system morphogenesis defects and liver dysfunction upon targeted deletion of HNF1beta. Development. 2002;129:1829–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cogle CR, Wainman DA, Jorgensen ML, Guthrie SM, Mames RN, Scott EW. Adult human hematopoietic cells provide functional hemangioblast activity. Blood. 2004;103:133–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Colvin JS, White AC, Pratt SJ, Ornitz DM. Lung hypoplasia and neonatal death in Fgf9-null mice identify this gene as an essential regulator of lung mesenchyme. Development. 2001;128:2095–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Corpechot C, Barbu V, Chazouilleres O, Poupon R. Fetal microchimerism in primary biliary cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2000;33:696–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Damert A, Miquerol L, Gertsenstein M, Risau W, Nagy A. Insufficient VEGFA activity in yolk sac endoderm compromises haematopoietic and endothelial differentiation. Development. 2002;129:1881–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Davies J. Clinicopathological conference. A case of haemolytic disease with congenital rubella demonstrated at the royal postgraduate medical school. Br Med J. 1967;2:819–22.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    DeRuiter MC, Poelmann RE, VanMunsteren JC, Mironov V, Markwald RR, Gittenberger-de Groot AC. Embryonic endothelial cells transdifferentiate into mesenchymal cells expressing smooth muscle actins in vivo and in vitro. Circ Res. 1997;80:444–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Deutsch V, Hubel E, Kay S, Ohayon T, Katz BZ, Many A, Zander A, Naparstek E, Grisaru D. Mimicking the haematopoietic niche microenvironment provides a novel strategy for expansion of haematopoietic and megakaryocyte-progenitor cells from cord blood. Br J Haematol. 2010;149(1):137–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Digicaylioglu M, Bichet S, Marti HH, Wenger RH, Rivas L, Bauer C, Gassman M. Localization of specific erythropoietin binding sites in defined areas of the mouse brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995;92:3717–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dobbing J, Smart J. Vulnerability of developing brain and behaviour. Br Med Bull. 1974;30:164–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Doetschman TC, Eistetter H, Katz M, Schmidt W, Kemler R. The in vitro development of blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cell lines: formation of visceral yolk sac, blood islands, and myocardium. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1985;87:27–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Donoghue JF, Lederman FL, Susil BJ, Rogers PA. Lymphangiogenesis of normal endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:1705–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dubernard G, Aractingi S, Oster M, Rouzier R, Mathieu MC, Uzan S, Khosrotehrani K. Breast cancer stroma frequently recruits fetal derived cells during pregnancy. Breast Cancer Res. 2008;10:R14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dubernard G, Oster M, Chareyre F, Antoine M, Rouzier R, Uzan S, Aractingi S, Khosrotehrani K. Increased fetal cell microchimerism in high grade breast carcinomas occurring during pregnancy. Int J Cancer. 2009;124(5):1054–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dunwoodie SL, Rodriguez TA, Beddington RS. Msg1 and Mrg1, founding members of a gene family, show distinct patterns of gene expression ­during mouse embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 1998;72:27–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dyce J, George M, Goodall H, Fleming TP. Do trophectoderm and inner cell mass cells in the mouse blastocyst maintain discrete lineages? Development. 1987;100:685–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dyer MA, Farrington SM, Mohn D, Munday JR, Baron MH. India hedgehog activates hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis and can respecify prospective neuroectodermal cell fate in the mouse embryo. Development. 2001;128:1717–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Edwards RG, Beard HK. Oocyte polarity and cell determination in early mammalian embryos. Mol Hum Reprod. 1997;3:863–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    El-Bastawissi AY, Williams MA, Riley DE. Amniotic fluid interleukin-6 and preterm delivery: a review. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95(6):1056–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Endo Y, Negishi I, Ishikawa O. Possible contribution of microchimerism to the pathogenesis of Sjogren’s syndrome. Rheumatology. 2002;41:490–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Engel SA, Olshan AF, Savitz DA. Risk of small-for-gestational-age is associated with common anti-inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms. Epidemiology. 2005;16(4):478–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Engel SA, Erichsen HC, Savitz DA. Risk of spontaneous preterm birth is associated with common proinflammatory cytokine polymorphisms. Epidemiology. 2005;16(4):469–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Erlebacher A, Vencato D, Price KA, Zhang D, Glimcher LH. Constraints in antigen presentation severely restrict T cell recognition of the allogeneic fetus. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1399–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Esposito C, Cornacchia F, Roberta Riboni R, Gianluca Fasoli G, Parrilla B, Scudellaro R, Villa L, Mangione F, Serpieri N, Canton AD. Feto-maternal microchimerism in glomerular cells: a possible role in lupus nephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20:v197.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Evans MJ, Kaufman MH. Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos. Nature. 1981;292:154–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Evans PC, Lambert N, Maloney S, Furst DE, Moore JM, Nelson JL. Long-term fetal microchimerism in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in healthy women and women with scleroderma. Blood. 1999;93:2033–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Fanning PA, Jonsson JR, Clouston AD, Edwards-Smith C, Balderson GA, MacDonald GA, Crawford DHG, Kerlin P, Powell LW, Powell EE. Detection of male DNA in the liver of female patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2000;33:690–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fausto N, Lemire JM, Shiojiri N. Cell lineages in hepatic development and the identification of progenitor cells in normal and injured liver. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1993;204:237–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Flake AW, Roncarolo MG, Puck JM. Treatment of x-linked severe combined immunodeficiency by in utero transplantation of paternal bone marrow. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:1806–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Fleming TP. A quantitative analysis of cell allocation to trophectoderm and inner cell mass in the mouse blastocyst. Dev Biol. 1987;119:520–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Furuta C, Ema H, Takayanagi S, Ogaeri T, Okamura D, Matsui Y, Nakauchi H. Discordant developmental waves of angioblasts and hemangioblasts in the early gastrulating mouse embryo. Development. 2006;133:2771–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gadi VK, Nelson JL. Fetal microchimerism in women with breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2007;67:9035–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gadi VK, Malone KE, Guthrie KA, Porter PL, Nelson JL. Case control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer. PLoS One. 2008;3:e1706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gardner RL. Investigation of cell lineage and differentiation in the extraembryonic endoderm of the mouse embryo. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1982;68:175–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gardner L, Moffett A. Dendritic cells in the human decidua. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1438–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gargano JW, Holzman C, Senagore P. Mid-pregnancy circulating cytokine levels, histologic chorioamnionitis and spontaneous preterm birth. J Reprod Immunol. 2008;79(1):100–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Goldenberg RL, Goepfert AR, Ramsey PS. Biochemical markers for the prediction of preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192(5 suppl):S36–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Grant MB, May WS, Caballero S, Brown G, Guthrie S, Mames R, Byrne B, Vaught T, Spoerri P, Peck A, Scott EW. Adult hematopoietic stem cells provide functional hemangioblast activity during retinal neovascularization. Nat Med. 2002;8:607–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gruber DF, Zucali JR, Wleklinski J, Larussa V, Mirand EA. Temporal transition in the site of rat erythropoietin production. Exp Hematol. 1977;5:399–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Guettier C. Which stem cells for adult liver? Ann Pathol. 2005;25:33–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hagberg H, Mallard C, Jacobsson B. Role of cytokines in preterm labour and brain injury. BJOG. 2005;112 suppl 1:16S–8.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hagger L. The role of the human fertilisation and embryology authority. Med Law Int. 1997;3(1):1–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hahn-Zoric M, Hagberg H, Kjellmer I. Aberrations in placental cytokine mRNA related to intrauterine growth retardation. Pediatr Res. 2002;51(2):201–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hanna J, Mandelboim O. When killers become helpers. Trends Immunol. 2007;28:201–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hansis C, Grifo JA, Krey LC. Candidate lineage marker genes in human preimplantation embryos. Reprod Biomed Online. 2005;8:577–83.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hayashi M, Zhu K, Sagesaka T. Elevation of amniotic fluid macrophage colony-stimulating factor in normotensive pregnancies that delivered small-for-gestational-age infants. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2007;57(6):488–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hench PS. The ameliorating effect of pregnancy on chronic atropic infections, rheumatoid arthritis, fibrosititis and intermittent hydrarthrosis. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin. 1938;13:161–75.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Herzenberg LA, Bianchi DW, Schroder J, Cann HM, Iverson GM. Fetal cells in the blood of pregnant women: detection and enrichment by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1979;76:1453–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hiby SE, Walker JJ, O’Shaughnessy KM, Redman CW, Carrington M, Trowsdale J, Moffett A. Combinations of maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C genes influence the risk of preeclampsia and reproductive success. J Exp Med. 2004;200:957–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hiby SE, Regan L, Lo W, Farrell L, Carrington M, Moffett A. Association of maternal killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors and parental HLA-C genotypes with recurrent miscarriage. J Exp Med. 2008;23:972–6.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hidaka M, Stanford WL, Bernstein A. Conditional requirement for the flk-1 receptor in the in vitro generation of early hematopoietic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999;96:7370–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    His W. Lecithoblast und angioblastder wirbelthiere. Abhandl KS Ges Wis Math-Phys. 1900;22:171.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Holland E. A case of transplacental metastasis of malignant melanoma from mother to foetus. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp. 1949;56:529–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hollands P. Differentiation of stem cells in the mouse embryo and their use in grafting. Hum Reprod. 1985;1(Supp 1):A32.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hollands P, Edwards RG. The fate of embryonic cells grafted into X-irradiated recipients. Hum Reprod. 1986;1(Supp 2):40.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hollands P. Differentiation and grafting of haemopoietic stem cells from early post-implantation mouse embryos. Development. 1987;99:69–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hollands P. Differentiation of embryonic haemopoietic stem cells from mouse blastocysts grown in vitro. Development. 1988;102:135–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Holmes VA, Wallace JM, Gilmore WS, McFaul P, Alexander HD. Plasma levels of the immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin-10 during normal human pregnancy: a longitudinal study. Cytokine. 2003;21:265–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Holzgreve W, Ghezzi F, Dinaro E, Ganshirt D, Maymom E, Hahn S. Disturbed feto-maternal cell traffic in preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;91:669–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hovinga ICLK, Koopmans M, Baelde HJ, Vanderwal AM, Sijpkens YWJ, Deheer E, Bruijn JA, Bajema IM. Chimerism occurs twice as often in lupus nephritis as in normal kidneys. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:2944–50.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Huang SJ, Chen CP, Schatz F, Rahman M, Abrahams VM, Lockwood CJ. Pre-eclampsia is associated with dendritic cell recruitment into the uterine decidua. J Pathol. 2008;214:328–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Huang HC, Wang CL, Huang LT. Association of cord blood cytokines with prematurity and cerebral palsy. Early Hum Dev. 2004;77(1–2):29–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Huber TL, Kouskoff V, Fehling HJ, Palis J, Keller G. Haemangioblast commitment is initiated in the primitive streak of the mouse embryo. Nature. 2004;432:625–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hunt JS. Stranger in a strange land. Immunol Rev. 2006;213:36–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Huppertz B, Kadyrov M, Kingdom JCP. Apoptosis and its role in the trophoblast. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;195:29–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ishitani A, Sageshima N, Hatake K. The involvement of HLA E and -F in pregnancy. J Reprod Immunol. 2005;69:101–13.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Invernizzi P, Biondi M, Battezzati P, Perego F, Selmi C, Cecchini F, Podda M, Simoni G. Presence of fetal DNA in maternal plasma decades after pregnancy. Hum Genet. 2002;110:587–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jiang Y, Jahagirdar BN, Reinhardt RL, Schwartz RE, Keene CD, Ortiz-Gonzalez XR, Reyes M, Lenvik T, Lund T, Blackstad M, Du J, Aldrich S, Lisberg A, Low WC, Largaespada DA, Verfaillie CM. Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult marrow. Nature. 2002;418:41–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Johnson MH, Ziomek CA. The foundation of two distinct cell lineages within the mouse morula. Cell. 1981;24:71–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Johnson K, Nelson J, Furst D, McSweeney P, Roberts D, Zhen D, Bianchi D. Fetal cell microchimerism in tissue from multiple sites in women with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44:1848–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Jonsson V, Tjonnfjord G, Samuelsen SO, Johannesen T, Olsen J, Sellick G, Houlston R, Yuille M, Catovsky D. Birth order pattern in the inheritance of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and related lymphoproliferative disease. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48:2387–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Jung J, Zheng M, Goldfarb M, Zaret KS. Initiation of mammalian liver development from endoderm by fibroblast growth factors. Science. 1999;284:1998–2003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Jurisicova A, Detmar J, Caniggia I. Molecular mechanisms of trophoblast survival: from implantation to birth. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2005;75:262–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Juul SE, Harcum J, Li Y, Christensen RD. Erythropoietin is present in the cerebrospinal fluid of neonates (Abstract). Pediatr Res. 1996;39:1715.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Juul SE, Li Y, Calhoun DA, Christensen RD. Erythropoietin and its receptor are expressed in the central nervous system of first and second trimester human fetuses (Abstract). Pediatr Res. 1996;39:1301.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kammerer U, Schoppet M, McLellan AD, Kapp M, Huppertz HI, Kampgen E, Dietl J. Human decidua contains potent immunostimulatory CD83+ dendritic cells. Am J Pathol. 2000;157:159–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kanai-Azuma M, Kanai Y, Gad JM, Tajima Y, Taya C, Kurohmaru M, Sanai Y, Yonekawa H, Yazaki K, Tam PP, Hayashi Y. Depletion of definitive gut endoderm in Sox17-null mutant mice. Development. 2002;129:2367–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kaufman DS, Hanson ET, Lewis RL, Auerbach R, Thomson JA. Hematopoietic colony-forming cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001;98:10716–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Keelan JA, Blumenstein M, Helliwell RJ. Cytokines, prostaglandins and parturition – a review. Placenta. 2003;24(suppl A):S33–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kennedy M, D’Souza S, Lynch-Kattman M, Schwantz S, Keller G. Development of the hemangioblast defines the onset of hematopoiesis in human ES cell differentiation cultures. Blood. 2007;109:2679–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Khosrotehrani K, Johnson KL, Lau J, Dupuy A, Cha DH, Bianchi DW. The influence of fetal loss on the presence of fetal cell microchimerism: a systematic review. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48(11):3237–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Khosrotehrani K, Johnson KL, Cha DH, Salomon RN, Bianchi DW. Transfer of fetal cells with multilineage potential to maternal tissue. JAMA. 2004;292:75–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Khosrotehrani K, Bianchi DW. Multi-lineage potential of fetal cells in maternal tissue: a legacy in reverse. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1559–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Khosrotehrani K, Mery L, Aractingi S, Bianchi DW, Johnson KL. Absence of fetal cell microchimerism in cutaneous lesions of lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:159–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Khosrotehrani K, Reyes RR, Johnson KL, Freeman RB, Salomon RN, Peter I, Stroh H, Guegan S, Bianchi DW. Fetal cells participate over time in the response to specific types of murine maternal hepatic injury. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:654–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kinder SJ, Tsang TE, Quinlan GA, Hadjantonakis A-K, Nagy A, Tam PPL. The orderly allocation of mesodermal cells to the extraembryonic structures and the anteroposterior axis during gastrulation of the mouse embryo. Development. 1999;126:4691–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    King A, Burrows TD, Hiby SE, Bowen JM, Joseph S, Verma S, Lim PB, Gardner L, Le Bouteiller P, Ziegler A. Surface expression of HLA-C antigen by human extravillous trophoblast. Placenta. 2000;21:376–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Klintschar M, Immel UD, Kehlen A, Schwaiger P, Mustafa T, Mannweiler S, Regauer S, Kleiber M, Hoang-Vu C. Fetal microchimerism in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: a quantitative approach. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;154:237–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kobayashi H, Tamatani T, Tamura T, Kusafuka J, Yamataka A, Lane GJ, Kawasaki S, Ishizaki Y, Mizuta K, KIawarasaki H, Gittes GK. Maternal microchimerism in biliary atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:987–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kolialexi A, Tsangaris GT, Antsaklis A, Mavroua A. Rapid clearance of fetal cells from maternal ­circulation after delivery. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1022:113–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Konishi Y, Chui DH, Hirose H, Kunishita T, Tabira T. Trophic effect of erythropoietin and other hematopoietic factors on central cholinergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. Brain Res. 1993;609:29–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, Sivridis E, Simopoulos C, Gatter KC, Harris AL, Jackson DG. LYVE-1 immunohistochemical assessment of lymphangiogenesis in endometrial and lung cancer. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:202–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kowalzick L, Artlett C, Thiss K, Baum H, Ziegler H, Mischke D, Blum R, Ponnighaus J, Quietsch J. Chronic graft-versus-host-disease-like dermopathy in a child with CD4+ cell microchimerism. Dermatology. 2005;210:68–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Kuroki M, Okayama A, Nakamura S, Sasaki T, Murai K, Shiba R, Shinohara M, Tsubouchi H. Detection of maternal-fetal microchimerism in the inflammatory lesions of patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002;61:1041–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Labarrere CA, Faulk WP. MHC class II reactivity of human villous trophoblast in chronic inflammation of unestablished etiology. Transplantation. 1990;50:812–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Lacaud G, Gore L, Kennedy M, Kouskoff V, Kingsley PD, Hogan C, Carlsson L, Speck NA, Palis J, Keller G. Runx1 is essential for hematopoietic commitment at the hemangioblast stage of development in vitro. Blood. 2002;100:458–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Lambert NC, Lo YM, Erickson TD, Tylee TS, Guthrie KA, Furst DE, Nelson JL. Male microchimerism in healthy women and women with scleroderma: cells or circulating DNA? A quantitative answer. Blood. 2002;100:2845–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lambert NC, Erickson TD, Yan Z, Pang JM, Guthrie KA, Furst DE, Nelson JL. Quantification of maternal microchimerism by HLA-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction: studies of healthy women and women with scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:906–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Lanfranchi A, Neva A, Tettoni K. In utero transplantation (iut) of parental cd34þ cells in patient affected by primary immunodeficiencies. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1998;21:S127.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lapaire O, Holzgreve W, Oosterwijk JC, Brinkhaus R, Bianchi DW. Georg Schmorl on trophoblasts in the maternal circulation. Placenta. 2007;28:1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Laskowska M, Leszczyńska-Gorzelak B, Laskowska K. Evaluation of maternal and umbilical serum TNFa levels in preeclamptic pregnancies in the intrauterine normal and growth-restricted fetus. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006;19(6):347–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Laskowska M, Laskowska K, Leszczyńska-Gorzelak B. Comparative analysis of the maternal and umbilical interleukin-8 levels in normal pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with intrauterine normal growth and intrauterine growth retardation. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007;20(7):527–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lau TK, Lo KWK, Chan LYS, Leung TY, Lo YMD. Cell free fetal deoxyribonucleic acid in maternal circulation as a marker of fetal-maternal hemorrhage in patients undergoing external cephalic version near term. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183:712–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Lau TW, Leung TN, Chan LYS, Lau TK, Chan KCA, Tam WH, Lo YMD. Fetal DNA clearance from maternal plasma is impaired in pre-eclampsia. Clin Chem. 2002;48:2141–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lawson KA, Dunn NR, Roelen BA, Zeinstra LM, Davis AM, Wright CV, Korving JP, Hogan BL. Bmp4 is required for the generation of primordial germ cells in the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 1999;13:424–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lee TH, Montalvo L, Chrebtow V, Busch MP. Quantitation of genomic DNA in plasma and serum samples: higher concentrations of genomic DNA found in serum than in plasma. Transfusion. 2001;41:276–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Lemaigre F, Zaret KS. Liver development update: new embryo models, cell lineage control, and morphogenesis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004;14:582–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lemery DJ, Santolaya J, Serre AF, Denoix S, Besse GH, Vanlieferinghen PC, Bezou MJ, Gaillard G, Jacquetin B. Serum erythropoietin in small for gestational age fetuses. Biol Neonate. 1994;65:89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Leung TN, Zhang J, Lau TK, Hjelm NM, Lo YMD. Maternal plasma fetal DNA as a marker for preterm labour. Lancet. 1998;352:1904–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Levenberg S, Golub JS, Amit M, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Langer R. Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002;99:4391–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Li Y, Juul SE, Morris-Wiman JA, Calhoun DA, Christensen RD. Erythropoietin receptors are expressed in the central nervous system in mid-trimester human fetuses. Pediatr Res. 1996;40:376–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Liapis H, Roby J, Birkland TP, Davila RM, Ritter D, Parks WC. In situ hybridization of human erythropoietin in pre- and postnatal kidneys. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med. 1995;15:875–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lim GB, Jeyaseelan K, Wintour EM. Ontogeny of erythropoietin gene expression in the sheep fetus: effect of dexamethasone at 60 days of gestation. Blood. 1994;84:460–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Lin Y, Zeng Y, Di J, Zeng S. Murine CD200+ CK7+ trophoblasts in a poly (I:C)-induced embryo resorption model. Reproduction. 2005;130:529–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Lo YM, Patel P, Wainscoat JS, Sampietro M, Gillmer MD, Fleming KA. Prenatal sex determination by DNA amplification from maternal peripheral blood. Lancet. 1989;2:1363–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lo YM, Patel P, Sampietro M, Gillmer MD, Fleming KA, Wainscoat JS. Detection of single-copy fetal DNA sequence from maternal blood. Lancet. 1990;335:1463–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lo YMD, Corbetta N, Chamberlain PF, Rai V, Sargent IL, Redman CWG, Wainscoat JS. Presence of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum. Lancet. 1997;350:485–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Lo Y, Tein M, Lau T, Haines C, Leung T, Poon P, Wainscoat J, Johnson P, Chang A, Hjelm N. Quantitative analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum: implications for non-invasive pre-natal diagnosis. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;62:768–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lo YMD, Zhang J, Leung TN, Lau TK, Chamg AMZ, Hjelm NM. Rapid clearance of fetal DNA from maternal plasma. Am J Hum Genet. 1999;64:218–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Loges S, Fehse B, Brockmann MA, Lamszus K, Butzal M, Guckenbiehl M, Schuch G, Ergun S, Fischerm U, Zander A, Hossfeld DK, Fiedler W, Gehling UM. Identification of the adult human hemangioblast. Stem Cells Dev. 2004;13:229–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Loubiere LS, Lambert NC, Flinn LJ, Erickson TD, Yan Z, Guthrie KA, Vickers KT, Nelson JL. Maternal microchimerism in healthy adults in lymphocytes, monocyte/macrophages and NK cells. Lab Invest. 2006;86(11):1185–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lugus JJ, Chung YS, Mills JC, Kim SI, Grass J, Kyba M, Doherty JM, Bresnick EH, Choi K. Gata2 functions at multiple steps in hemangioblast development and differentiation. Development. 2007;134(2):393–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Lu S-J, Feng Q, Caballero S, Chen Y, Moore MAS, Grant MB, Lanza R. Generation of functional hemangioblasts from human embryonic stem cells. Nat Methods. 2006;6:501–9.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Mackler AM, Barber EM, Takikawa O, Pollard JW. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is regulated by IFN-g in the mouse placenta during listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 2003;170:823–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Maloney S, Smith A, Furst DE, Myerson D, Rupert K, Evans PC, Nelson JL. Microchimerism of maternal origin persists into adult life. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:41–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Manavalan JS, Rossi PC, Vlad G, Piazza F, Yarilina A, Cortesini R, Mancini D, Suciu-Foca N. High expression of ILT3 and ILT4 is a general feature of tolerogenic dendritic cells. Transpl Immunol. 2003;11:245–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Martin GR. Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1981;78:7634–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Matsumoto K, Yoshitomi H, Rossant J, Zaret KS. Liver organogenesis promoted by endothelial cells prior to vascular function. Science. 2001;294:559–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    McClelland R, Wauthier E, Zhang L, Melhem A, Barbier C, Reid L. Ex vivo conditions for self-­replication of human hepatic stem cells. Tissue Eng. 2008;14(4):1–11.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    McClelland R, Wauthier E, Uronis J, Reid LM. Gradient in extracellular matrix chemistry from periportal to pericentral zones: regulation of hepatic progenitors. Tissue Eng. 2008;14:59–70.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    McGrath H. Elective pregnancy termination and microchimerism: commenton the article by Khosrotehrani et al. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:3058–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Medawar PB. Some immunological andendocrinological problems raised by the evolution of viviparity in vertebrates. Symp Soc Exp Biol. 1954;7:320.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Medvinsky A, Dzierzak E. Definitive hematopoiesis is autonomously initiated by the AGM region. Cell. 1996;86:897–906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Meilhac SM, Adams RJ, Morris SA, Danckaert A, Le Garrec JF, Zernicka-Goetz M. Active cell movements coupled to positional induction are involved in lineage segregation in the mouse blastocyst. Dev Biol. 2009;331(2):210–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Mendelson CR. Role of transcription factors in fetal lung development and surfactant protein gene expression. Annu Rev Physiol. 2000;62:875–915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Mijares-Boeckh-Behrens T, Selva-O’Callaghan A, Solans-Laque R, Bosch-Gil J, Vilardell-Tarres M, Balada-Prades E, Kuwana M, Ogawa Y, Toda I. Fetal microchimerism in Sjögren’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001;60:897–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Min H, Danilenko DM, Scully SA, Bolon B, Ring BD, Tarpley JE, DeRose M, Simonet WS. Fgf-10 is required for both limb and lung development and exhibits striking functional similarity to Drosophila branchless. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3156–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Miyazaki S, Tsuda H, Sakai M, Hori S, Sasaki Y, Futatani T, Miyawaki T, Saito S. Predominance of Th2-promoting dendritic cells in early human pregnancy decidua. J Leukoc Biol. 2003;74:514–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Moldenhauer LM, Hayball JD, Robertson SA. Conceptus antigens activate the maternal immune response in pregnancy utilising maternal antigen presenting cells. J Reprod Immunol. 2006;71:148–55.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Montfort MJ, Olivares CR, Mulcahy JM, Fleming WH. Adult blood vessels restore host hematopoiesis following lethal irradiation. Exp Hematol. 2002;30:950–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Morris SA, Teo RTY, Li H, Robson P, Glover DM, Zernicka-Goetz M. Origin and formation of the first two distinct cell types of the inner cell mass in the mouse embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010;107:6364–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Mosca M, Curcio M, Lapi S, Valentini G, D’Angelo S, Rizzo G, Bombardieri S. Correlations of Y chromosome microchimerism with disease activity in patients with SLE: analysis of preliminary data. Ann Rheum Dis. 2003;62:651–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Muglia LJ, Bae DS, Brown TT, Vogt SK, Alvarez JG, Sunday ME, Majzoub JA. Proliferation and differentiation defects during lung development in corticotropin-releasing hormone-deficient mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1999;20:181–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Murphy SP, Choi JC, Holtz R. Regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression in trophoblast cells. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2004;2:52–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Murphy SP, Tayade C, Ashkar AA. Interferon gamma in successful pregnancies. Biol Reprod. 2009;80(5):848–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Nakano T, Kodama H, Honjo T. In vitro development of primitive and definitive erythrocytes from different precursors. Science. 1996;272:722–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Nava S, Westgren M, Jaksch M, Tibell A, Broome U, Ericzon BG. Characterization of cells in the developing human liver. Differentiation. 2005;73:249–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Nelson JL, Hughes KA, Smith AG, Nisperos BB, Branchaud AM, Hansen JA. Maternal-fetal disparity in HLA class II alloantigens and the pregnancy-induced amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:466–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Nelson JL. Maternal-fetal immunology and autoimmune disease: is some autoimmune disease auto-­alloimmune or allo-autoimmune? Arthritis Rheum. 1996;39:191–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Nelson JL, Furst DE, Maloney S, Gooley T, Evans PC, Smith A, Bean MA, Ober C, Bianchi DW. Microchimerism and HLA-compatible relationships of pregnancy in scleroderma. Lancet. 1998;351:559–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Nesin M, Cunningham-Rundles S. Cytokines and neonates. Am J Perinatol. 2000;17(8):393–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Nishikawa S-I, Nishikawa S, Hirashima M, Matsuyoshi N, Kodama H. Progressive lineage analysis by cell sorting and culture identifies FLK1  +  VE-cadherin  +  cells at a diverging point of endothelial and hemopoietic lineages. Development. 1998;125:1747–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ødegard RA, Vatten LJ, Nilsen ST. Umbilical cord plasma interleukin-6 and fetal growth restriction in pre-eclampsia: a prospective study in Norway. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;98(2):289–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    O’Donoghue K, Chan J, de la Fuente J, Kennea N, Sandison A, Anderson JR, Roberts IA, Fisk NM. Microchimerism in female bonemarrow and bone decades after fetal mesenchymal stem-cell trafficking in pregnancy. Lancet. 2004;364:179–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ohls RK. The erythropoietin gene is expressed in midtrimester human kidney (Abstract). Blood. 1996;88 Suppl 1:566.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Orsi NM, Tribe RM. Cytokine networks and the regulation of uterine function in pregnancy and parturition. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20(4):462–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Ostensen ME, Nelson JL. Pregnancy. In: Clair ES, Pisetsky D, Hayes B, editors. Rheumatoid arthritis. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams Wilkins; 2004. p. 496–503.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Ostlund E, Tally M, Fried G. Transforming growth factor-b1 infetal serum correlates with insulin-like growth factor-I and fetal growth. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100(3):567–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Park C, Afrikanova I, Chung YS, Zhang WJ, Arentson E, Fong GH, Rosendahl A, Choi K. A hierachiacal order of factors in the generation of FLK1- and SCL-expressing hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors from embryonic stem cells. Development. 2004;131:2749–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Park JS, Park CW, Lockwood CJ. Role of cytokines in preterm labor and birth. Minerva Ginecol. 2005;57(4):349–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Pedersen RA, Wu K, Bałakier H. Origin of the inner cell mass in mouse embryos: cell lineage analysis by microinjection. Dev Biol. 1986;117:581–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Pedersen IB, Laurberg P, Knudsen N, Jorgensen T, Perrild H, Ovesen L, Rasmussen LB. Lack of association between thyroid autoantibodies and parity in a population study argues against microchimerism as a trigger of thyroid autoimmunity. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;154:39–45.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Peschle A. Human ontogenic development: studies on the hemopoietic system and the expression of homeo box genes. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1987;511:101–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Petroff MG. Immune interactions at the maternal-fetal interface. J Reprod Immunol. 2005;68:1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Plusa B, Piliszek A, Frankenberg S, Artus J, Hadjantonakis AK. Distinct sequential cell behaviours direct primitive endoderm formation in the mouse blastocyst. Development. 2008;135:3081–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Potter JF. Metastasis of maternal cancer to placenta and fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969;105:645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Potter JF, Schoeneman M. Metastasis of maternal cancer to the placenta and fetus. Cancer. 1970;25:380–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Qiu Q, Yang M, Tsang BK, Gruslin A. Fas ligand expression by maternal decidual cells is negatively correlated with the abundance of leukocytes present at the maternal-fetal interface. J Reprod Immunol. 2005;65:121–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Qu XB, Pan J, Zhang C, Huang SY. Sox17 facilitates the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into primitive and definitive endoderm in vitro. Dev Growth Differ. 2008;50:585–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Ranella A, Vassiliadi S, Mastora C, Valentina M, Dionyssopoulou E, Athanassaki I. Constitutive intracellular expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DO and HLA-DR but not HLA-DM in trophoblast cells. Hum Immunol. 2005;66:43–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Red-Horse K, Rivera J, Schanz A, Zhou Y, Winn V, Kapidzi M, Maltepe E, Okazaki K, Kochman R, Vo KC. Cytotrophoblast induction of arterial apoptosis and lymphangiogenesis in an in vivo model of human placentation. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2643–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Reed AM, Picornell YJ, Harwood A, Kredish DW. Chimerism in children with juvenile dermatomyositis. Lancet. 2000;356:2156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Renne C, Ramos Lopez E, Steimle-Grauer SA, Ziolkowski P, Pani MA, Luther C, Holzer K, Encke A, Wahl RA, Bechstein WO, Usadel KH, Hansmann ML, Badenhoop K. Thyroid fetal male microchimerisms in mothers with thyroid disorders: presence of Y-chromosomal immunofluorescence in thyroid-infiltrating lymphocytes is more prevalent in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and Graves’ disease than in follicular adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5810–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Reyes M, Dudek A, Jahagirdar B, Koodie L, Marker PH, Verfaillie CM. Origin of endothelial progenitors in human postnatal bone marrow. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:337–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Rieger L, Honig A, Sutterlin M, Kapp M, Dietl J, Ruck P, Kammerer U. Antigen presenting cells in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle compared to early pregnancy. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2004;11:488–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Robertson SM, Kennedy M, Shannon JM, Keller G. A transitional stage in the commitment of mesoderm to hematopoiesis requiring the transcription factor SCL/tal1. Development. 2000;127:2447–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Robertson SA, Ingman WV, O’Leary S, Sharkey DJ, Tremellen KP. Transforming growth factor beta – a mediator of immune deviation in seminal plasma. J Reprod Immunol. 2002;57:109–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Rollini P, Kaiser S, Faes-van’t Hull E. Long-term expansion of transplantable human fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells. Blood. 2004;103:1166–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Rossant J, Chazaud C, Yamanaka Y. Lineage allocation and asymmetries in the early mouse embryo. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2003;358(1436):1341–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Ruebner BH, Blankenberg TA, Burrows DA, SooHoo W, Lund JK. Development and transformation of the ductal plate in the developing human liver. Pediatr Pathol. 1990;10:55–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Sabin FR. Studies on the origin of blood vessels and of red corpuscles as seen in the living blastoderm of chicks during the second day of incubation. Contrib Embryol. 1920;9:213–62.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Sainz J, Al Haj Zen A, Caligiuri G, Demerens C, Urbain D, Lemitre M, Lafont A. Isolation of ‘side population’ progenitor cells from healthy arteries of adult mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:281–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Scaletti C, Vultaggio A, Bonifacio S, Emmi L, Torricelli F, Maggi E, Romagnani S, Piccinni MP. Th2-oriented profile of male offspring T cells present in women with systemic sclerosis and reactive with maternal major histocompatibility complex antigens. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:445–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Schatteman GC, Hanlon HD, Jiao C, Dodds SG, Christy BA. Blood derived angioblasts accelerate blood-flow restoration in diabetic mice. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:571–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Schatteman GC, Awad O. Hemangioblasts, angioblasts, and adult endothelial cell progenitors. Anat Rec. 2004;276A:13–21.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Schmelzer E, Wauthier E, Reid LM. Phenotypes of pluripotent human hepatic progenitors. Stem Cell. 2006;24:1852–8.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Schmelzer E, Zhang L, Bruce A, Ludlow J, Yao H, Moss N, Melhem A, McClelland R, Turner W, Kulik M, Sherwood S, Tallheden T, Cheng N, Furth ME, Reid LM. Human hepatic stem cells from fetal and postnatal donors. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1973–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Schmitt RM, Bruyns E, Snodgrass HR. Hematopoietic development of embryonic stem cells in vitro: cytokine and receptor gene expression. Genes Dev. 1991;5:728–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Schmorl CG. Pathologisch-anatomische Untersuc­hungen uber Puerperal-Eklampsie. Leipzig: Verlag FCW Vogel; 1893.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Schoniger-Hekele M, Muller C, Ackermann J, Drach J, Wrba F, Penner E, Ferenci P. Lack of evidence for involvement of fetal microchimerism in pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci. 2002;47:1909–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Schuh AC, Faloon P, Hu Q-L, Bhimani M, Choi K. In vitro hematopoietic and endothelial potential of flk-1−/− embryonic stem cells and embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1999;96:2159–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Seavey MM, Mosmann TR. Paternal antigen-bearing cells transferred during insemination do not stimulate anti-paternal CD8+ T cells: role of estradiol in locally inhibiting CD8+ T cell responses. J Immunol. 2006;177:7567–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Sekine K, Ohuchi H, Fujiwara M, Yamasaki M, Yoshizawa T, Sato T, Yagishita N, Matsui D, Koga Y, Itoh N, Kato S. Fgf10 is essential for limb and lung formation. Nat Genet. 1999;21:138–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Shalaby F, Rossant J, Yamaguchi TP, Gertsenstein M, Wu XF, Breitman ML, Schuh AC. Failure of blood-island formation and vasculogenesis in Flk-1 deficient mice. Nature. 1995;376:62–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Shao L, Jacobs AR, Johnson VV, Mayer L. Activation of CD8+ regulatory T cells by human placental trophoblasts. J Immunol. 2005;174:7539–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Shimoda M, Kanai-Azuma M, Hara K, Miyazaki S, Kanai Y, Monden M, Miyazaki J. Sox17 plays a substantial role in late-stage differentiation of the extraembryonic endoderm in vitro. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3859–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Shiojiri N, Lemire JM, Fausto N. Cell lineages and oval cell progenitors in rat liver development. Cancer Res. 1991;51:2611–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Shiojiri N, Inujima S, Ishikawa K, Terada K, Mori M. Cell lineage analysis during liver development using the spf(ash)-heterozygous mouse. Lab Invest. 2001;81:17–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Shuhaila A, Rohaizak M, Phang KS, Mahdy ZA. Maternal melanoma with placental metastasis. Singapore Med J. 2008;49(3):e71–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Sicklick JK, Li YX, Melhem A, Schmelzer E, Zdanowicz M, Huang J, Caballero M, Fair JH, Ludlow JW, McClelland RE, Reid LM, Diehl AM. Hedgehog signaling maintains resident hepatic progenitors throughout life. Am J Physiol Gastroenterol Liver Physiol. 2006;290:G859–70.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Simmons DG, Cross JC. Determinants of trophoblast lineage and cell subtype specification in the mouse placenta. Dev Biol. 2005;284:12–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Simpson E. A historical perspective on immunological privilege. Immunol Rev. 2006;213:12–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Spong CY, Scherer DM, Ghidini A. Midtrimester amniotic fluid tumor necrosis factor-alpha does not predict small-for-gestational-age infants. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1997;37(3):236–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Srivatsa B, Srivatsa S, Johnson KL, Samura O, Lee SL, Bianchi DW. Microchimerism of presumed fetal origin in thyroid specimens from women: a case–control study. Lancet. 2001;358:2034–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Stamatoyannopoulos G, Constantoulakis P, Brice M, Kurachi S, Papayannopoulou T. Coexpression of embryonic, fetal, and adult globins in erythroid cells of human embryos: relevance to the cell-lineage models of globin switching. Dev Biol. 1987;123:191–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Steinbrink K, Paragnik L, Jonuleit H, Tuting T, Knop J, Enk AH. Induction of dendritic cell maturation and modulation of dendritic cell-induced immune responses by prostaglandins. Arch Dermatol Res. 2000;292:437–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Steptoe PC, Edwards RG. Birth after the reimplantation of a human embryo. Lancet. 1978;2(8085):366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Stevens AM, Hermes HM, Rutledge JC, Buyon JP, Nelson JL. Myocardial-tissue-specific phenotype of maternal microchimerism in neonatal lupus congenital heart block. Lancet. 2003;362:1617–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Stevens AM, McDonnell WM, Mullarkey ME, Pang JM, Leisenring W, Nelson JL. Liver biopsies from human females contain male hepatocytes in the absence of transplantation. Lab Invest. 2004;84:1603–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Stevens AM, Hermes HM, Lambert NC, Nelson JL, Meroni PL, Cimaz R. Maternal and sibling microchimerism in twins and triplets discordant for neonatal lupus syndrome-congenital heart block. Rheumatology. 2005;44:187–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Stonek F, Bentz EK, Hafner E. A tumor necrosis factor alpha promoter polymorphism and pregnancy complications: results of a prospective cohort study in 1652 pregnant women. Reprod Sci. 2007;14(5):425–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Stonek F, Metzenbauer M, Hafner E. Interleukin 6–174 G/C promoter polymorphism and pregnancy complications: results of a prospective cohort study in 1626 pregnant women. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2008;59(4):347–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Stonek F, Metzenbauer M, Hafner E. Interleukin-10-1082 G/A promoter polymorphism and pregnancy complications: results of a ­prospective cohort study in 1,616 pregnant women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(4):430–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Suen PM, Leung PS. Pancreatic stem cells: a glimmer of hope for diabetes? JOP. 2005;6:422–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Sun HB, Zhu YX, Yin T, Sledge G, Yang YC. MRG1, the product of a melanocyte-specific gene related gene, is a cytokine inducible transcription factor with transformation activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998;95:13555–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Suskind DL, Rosenthal P, Heyman MB, Kong D, Magrane G, Baxter-Lowe LA, Muench MO. Maternal microchimerism in the livers of patients with biliary atresia. BMC Gastroenterol. 2004;4:14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Swinkels DW, Dekok JB, Hendriks JCM, Wiegerinck E, Zusterzeel PLM, Steegers EAP. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome as a complication of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women increases the amount of cell-free fetal and maternal DNA in maternal plasma and serum. Clin Chem. 2002;48:650–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Tan XW, Liao H, Sun L. Fetal microchimerism in the maternal mouse brain: a novel population of fetal progenitor or stem cells able to cross the blood–brain barrier? Stem Cells. 2005;23:1443–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Tanaka A, Lindor K, Gish R, Batts K, Shiratori Y, Omata M, Nelson JL, Ansari A, Coppel R, Newsome M, Gershwin ME. Fetal microchimerism alone does not contribute to the induction of primary biliary cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1999;30:833–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Tarasenko YI, Yu Y, Jordan PM. Effect of growth factors on proliferation and phenotypic differentiation of human fetal neural stem cells. J Neurosci Res. 2004;78:625–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Tesar PJ, Chenoweth JG, Brook FA, Davies TJ, Evans EP, Mack DL, Gardner RL, McKay RDG. New cell lines from mouse epiblast share defining feautres with human embryonic stem cells. Nature. 2007;448:196–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Theise ND, Saxena R, Portmann BC, Thung SN, Yee H, Chiriboga L. The canals of Hering and hepatic stem cells in humans. Hepatology. 1999;30:1425–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Thomas RM, Canning CE, Cotes PM, Linch DC, Rodeck CH, Rossiter CE, Huehns ER. Erythropoietin and cord blood haemoglobin in the regulation of human fetal erythropoiesis. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 1983;90:795–800.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Thomas MR, Williamson R, Craft I, Yazdani N, Rodeck CH. Y chromosome sequence DNA amplified from peripheral blood of women in early pregnancy. Lancet. 1994;343:413–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Thomson JA, Kalishman J, Golos TG, Durning M, Harris CP, Becker RA, Hearn JP. Isolation of a primate embryonic stem cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1995;92:7844–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Thomson JA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Shapiro SS, Waknitz MA, Swiergiel JJ, Marshall VS, Jones JM. Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science. 1998;282:1145–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Thorsen P, Schendel DE, Deshpande AD. Identification of biological/biochemical marker(s) for preterm delivery. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2001;15 suppl 2:90–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Toda I, Kuwana M, Tsubota K, Kawakami Y. Lack of evidence for an increased microchimerism in the circulation of patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001;60:248–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Touraine JL, Raudrant D, Royo C. In-utero transplantation of stem cells in bare lymphocyte syndrome. Lancet. 1989;1:1382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Touraine JL, Raudrant D, Vullo C, Frappaz D, Freycon F, Rebaud A, Barbier F, Roncarolo MG, Gebuhrer L, Bétuel H. New developments in stem cell transplantation with special reference to the first in utero transplants in humans. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1991;7 Suppl 3:92–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Turner WS, Seagle C, Galanko J, Favorov O, Prestwich GD, Macdonald JM. Metabolomic footprinting of human hepatic stem cells and hepatoblasts cultured in engineered hyaluronan-matrix hydrogel scaffolds. Stem Cell. 2008;26:1547–55.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Tyndall A, Gratwohl A. Microchimerism: friend or foe? Nat Med. 1998;4:386–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Val P, Martinez-Barbera JP, Swain A. Adrenal development is initiated by Cited2 and Wt1 through modulation of Sf-1 dosage. Development. 2007;134(12):2349–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Van Wijk IJ, De Hoon AC, Jurhawan R, Tjoa ML, Griffioen S, Mulders MAM, Van Vugt JMG, Oudejans CBM. Detection of apoptotic fetal cells in plasma of pregnant women. Clin Chem. 2000;46:729–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Vicovac L, Jankovic M, Cuperlovic M. Galectin-1 and −3 in cells of the first trimester placental bed. Hum Reprod. 1998;13:730–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Walsh JP, Bremner AP, Bulsara MK, O’Leary P, Leedman PJ, Feddema P, Michelangeli V. Parity and the risk of autoimmune thyroid disease: a community-based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:5309–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Wang L, Li L, Shojaei F, Levac K, Cerdan C, Menendez P, Martin T, Rouleau A, Bhatia M. Endothelial and hematopoietic cell fate of human embryonic stem cells originates from primitive endothelium with hemangioblastic properties. Immunity. 2004;21:31–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Wang C, Faloon P, Tan Z, Lv Y, Zhang P, Ge Y, Deng HK, Xiong J-W. Mouse Lycat controls the development of hematopoietic and endothelial lineages during in vitro embryonic stem cell differentiation. Blood. 2007;110:3601–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Warburton D, Bellusci S, Del Moral PM, Kaartinen V, Lee M, Tefft D, Shi W. Growth factor signaling in lung morphogenetic centers: automaticity, stereotypy and symmetry. Respir Res. 2003;4:5–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Weninger WJ, Floro KL, Bennett MB, Withington SL, Preis JI, Barbera JP, Mohun TJ, Dunwoodie SL. Cited2 is required both for heart morphogenesis and establishment of the left–right axis in mouse development. Development. 2005;132:1337–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Westgren M, Ringden O, Bartmann P. Prenatal t-cell reconstitution after in utero transplantation with fetal liver cells in a patient with x-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:475–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Winnier G, Blessing M, Labosky PA, Hogan BLM. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 is required for mesoderm formation and patterning in the mouse. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2105–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Wood WG. Haemoglobin synthesis during human fetal development. Br Med Bull. 1976;32:282–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Yamaguchi TP, Dumont DJ, Conlon RA, Breitman ML, Rossant J. Flk-1, an flt-related receptor tyrosine kinase is an early marker for endothelial cell precursors. Development. 1993;118:489–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Yan Z, Lambert NC, Guthrie KA, Porter AJ, Loubiere LS, Madeleine MM, Stevens AM, Hermes HM, Nelson JL. Male microchimerism in women without sons: quantitative assessment and correlation with pregnancy history. Am J Med. 2005;118:899–906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Yan Z, Lambert NC, Østensen M, Adams KM, Guthrie KA, Nelson JL. Prospective study of fetal DNA in serum and disease activity during pregnancy in women with inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:2069–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Yokota H, Goldring MB, Sun HB. CITED2-mediated regulation of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in human chondrocytes under flow shear. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:47275–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Zambidis ET, Peault B, Park TS, Bunz F, Civin CI. Hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells progresses through sequential hematoendothelial, primitive, and definitive stages resembling human yolk sac development. Blood. 2005;106:860–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Zafonte BT, Liu S, Lynch-Kattman M, Torregroza I, Benvenuto L, Kennedy M, Keller G, Evans T. Smad1 expands the hemangioblast population within a limited development window. Blood. 2007;109:516–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Zanjani ED, Ascensao JL. Erythropoietin. Transfusion. 1989;29:47–57.Google Scholar
  293. 293.
    Zaret KS. Regulatory phases of early liver development: paradigms of organogenesis. Nat Rev Genet. 2002;3:499–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Zhong XY, Laivuori H, Livingston JC, Ylikorkala O, Sibai BM, Holzgreve W, Hahn S. Elevation of both maternal and fetal extracellular circulating deoxyribonucleic acid concentrations in the plasma of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184:414–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Zhong XY, Holzgreve W, Hahn S. Direct quantification of fetal cells in maternal blood by real-time PCR. Prenat Diagn. 2006;26:850–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Zwaka TP, Thomson JA. A germ cell origin of embryonic stem cells? Development. 2005;132:227–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Blood and Marrow Transplantation UnitGreat Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK

Personalised recommendations