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Exergy pp 55-109 | Cite as

Exergy and Thermoeconomic Analysis of Power Plants, Refrigeration and Polygeneration Systems

Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

The exergy and thermoeconomic analysis of components of power plants, refrigeration and polygeneration systems is presented and discussed to characterize the performance of such systems as well as to determine their products cost formation processes. Based on the general formulation of efficiency, presented in Chap. 2, the expressions of the exergy-based performance parameters of the components of these systems are derived. These concepts are applied to evaluate the electricity cost formation of a combined cycle power plant, and the comparative performance and production costs of steam and electricity of cogeneration plants configurations for chemical and dairy industries. Finally a comparative exergoeconomic study of trigeneration systems to produce electricity, steam, and chilled water is described and discussed.

Keywords

Steam Turbine Combine Cycle Exergy Efficiency Trigeneration System Exergy Destruction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Symbols

b

Specific exergy (kJ/kg)

B

Exergy rate (kW)

c

Specific cost (US$/kWh, US$/kJ or US$/t)

C

Cost rate ($/s)

Coi

Cost of equipment i (US$)

Cequip,i

Equipment i cost rate (US$/s)

COP

Coefficient of performance

Cturb

Steam turbine cost rate (US$/s)

E

Energy rate (kW)

f

The fraction of the rejected heat of the heat engine that is sent to the refrigeration system

fi

Ratio of the exergy supplied to component i to the exergy consumed by the whole plant

fl

Load factor

fom

Annual operational and maintenance factor

ft

Time factor

I

Investment cost rate (US$/h)

LHV

Lower heating value (kJ/kg)

m

Mass flow rate (kg/s)

n

Annual interest rate

Nh

8760 h/year

P

pressure (bar)

Po

Reference pressure (bar)

Q

Heat rate (kW)

r

Capital recovery period (year); parameter defined by Eq. 3.24

To

Reference temperature (K)

W

Power (kW)

Greek symbols

α

Relation between chemical exergy and lower heating value

β

Relation between heat rate and power

Δ

Variation

ηb

Exergy efficiency

ηe

Energy efficiency

θ, \( \overline{{{\uptheta}}} \)

Carnot factor, average Carnot factor

Subscripts

abs

Absorption refrigerating system

air

Combustion air

b

Exergy

c

Compressor

cc

Combined cycle; combustion chamber

cd

Condenser

chilled water

Related to chilled water

cp

Compressor

cpi

Compressor inlet

cpo

Compressor outlet

crs

Compression refrigerating system

e

Electricity, Energy

ev

Evaporator

excess

Excess electricity

eg

Exhaust gas

equip

Equipment

fuel

Related to fuel

fuelcc

Fuel consumption in the gas turbine combustion chamber

fuelhrsg

Fuel consumption in the heat recovery steam generator

G

Related to the whole plant

gas

Natural gas

gases

Combustion gases

ge

Generator of the absorption chiller

gt

Gas turbine

hrsg

Heat recovery steam generator

i

Inlet, component i

o

Outlet

overall

Related to the whole plant

proc

Process

p

Pump; process

pump

Pump

pump i

Pump inlet

pump o

Pump outlet

plant

Related to plant

process

Related to process

products

Combustion products

p1

Steam demanded by process 1

p2

Steam demanded by process 2

q, Q

Heat/chilled water

sb

supplementary burning

sc

Steam cycle

st

Steam turbine

steam

Steam

t

Turbine

ti

Turbine inlet

to

Turbine outlet

Abbreviations

ABS

Absorption chiller

CC

Combustion chamber

CHP

combined heat and power unit

COND

Condenser

CONDP

Condensate pump

CIRCP

Circulating pump

CP

Air compressor

CT

Combustion turbine

CT

Cooling tower

D

Duct, Dimension

DB

Supplementary firing module

DEAR

Deaerator

ECON

Economizer

EVAP

Evaporator

FH

Fuel heater

GEEq

Gas engine with equality method

GT

Gas turbine; turbine of the gas turbine

GTEq

Gas turbine with equality method

GTEx

Gas turbine with extraction method

HP

High pressure

HPCON

High pressure economizer

HPECO2

High pressure economizer 2

HPEVAP

High pressure evaporator

HPPUMP

High pressure feed pump

HPSHR

High pressure superheater

HPSHT1

High pressure superheater 1

HPST

High pressure section

HRSG

Heat recovery steam generator

IP

Intermediate pressure

IPCON

Intermediate pressure economizer

IPPUMP

Intermediate pressure feed pump

IPST

Intermediate pressure section

IPSHT

Intermediate pressure superheater

IPSTH2

Intermediate pressure superheater 2

IPVAP

Intermediate pressure evaporator

LP

Low pressure

LPEVAP

Low pressure evaporator

LPSHT

Low pressure superheater

LPST

Low pressure section

MMBtu

106 Btu

OOC

Original operating condition

P

Pump

RH

Reheater

SHT

Superheater

ST

Steam Turbine

STEq

Steam turbine with equality method

STEx

Steam turbine with extraction method

TCR

Total cost rate (US$/h)

TR

Ton of refrigeration (3.5 kW)

WTHT

Water heater

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentPolytechnic School of the University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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