Analysis of Protein/Clay Nano-Biocomposites Systems

Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

Plant protein-based clay nano-biocomposites were analyzed through a series of material characterization technologies including x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Efficient dispersion of nanoclay in soy proteins or wheat gluten matrix was achieved via ultra-sonication treatment of the clay nanoparticles in plasticizers or using chemically modified clay nano particles. The dispersion status of the nanoclay in the composites were examined by XRD and TEM respectively and correlated to the changes in molecular motions and glass transitions of the protein matrixes to explore the effect derived from the nanoclay particles. High-resolution solid-state NMR further provides the interaction between the nanoclay and each component in the wheat gluten matrix, and the whole phase structures of the protein matrix. To correlate these results to the physical properties of the nanocomposites is fundamental to understand the performance of the systems and design new protein clay nanocomposites.

Keywords

Clay Permeability Cellulose Starch Glycerol 

References

  1. 1.
    Otaigbe JU, Goel H, Babcock T, Jane J (1999) Processability and properties of biodegradable plastics made from agricultural biopolymers. J Elastom Plast 31:56–71Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Salmoral EM, Gonzalez ME, Mariscal MP, Medina LF (2000) Comparison of chickpea and soy protein isolate and whole flour as biodegradable plastics. Ind Crop Prod 11:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mohanty AK, Misra M, Hinrichsen G (2000) Biofibres, biodegradable polymers and biocomposites: an overview. Macromol Mat Eng 276–277:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yu L, Christie G (2001) Measurement of starch thermal transitions using differential scanning calorimetry. Carbohyr Polym 46:179–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vaz CA, Mano JF, Fossen M, Tuil RFv, Graaf LAd, Reis RL, et al (2002) Mechanical, dynamic-mechanical and thermal properties of soy protein-based thermoplastics with potential biomedical applications. J Macromol Sci Phys 41:33–46Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vaz CM, de Graaf LA, Reis RL, Cunha AM (2003) Effect of crosslinking, thermal treatment and UV irradiation on the mechanical properties and in vitro degradation behavior of several natural proteins aimed to be used in the biomedical field. J Mater Sci Mater Med 14:789–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hernandez-Izquierdo VM, Krochta JM (2008) Thermoplastic processing of proteins for film formation—a review. J Food Sci 73:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yu L (ed) (2009) Biodegradable polymer blends and composites from renewable resources. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cho SY, Rhee C (2002) Sorption characteristics of soy protein films and their relation to mechanical properties. LWT-Food Sci Tech 35:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kumar R, Choudhary V, Mishra S, Varma IK, Mattiason B (2002) Adhesives and plastics based on soy protein products. Ind Crop Prod 16:155–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang J, Mungara P, Jane J (2001) Mechanical and thermal properties of extruded soy protein sheets. Polymer 42:2569–2578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Achouri A, Zhang W, Shiying X (1998) Enzymatic hydrolysis of soy protein isolate and effect of succinylation on the functional properties of resulting protein hydrolysates. Food Res Int 31:617–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Paetau I, Chen C-Z, Jane J-l (1994) Biodegradable plastic made from soybean products. 1. effect of preparation and processing on mechanical properties and water absorption. Ind Eng Chem Res 33:1821–1827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sue HJ, Wang S, Jane JL (1997) Morphology and mechanical behaviour of engineering soy plastics. Polymer 38:5035–5040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kunanopparat T, Menut P, Morel M-H, Guilbert S (2008) Plasticized wheat gluten reinforcement with natural fibers: effect of thermal treatment on the fiber/matrix adhesion. Composites Part A 39:1787–1792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang X, Burgar I, Do MD, Lourbakos E (2005) Intermolecular interactions and phase structures of plasticized wheat proteins materials. Biomacromolecules 6:1661–1671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mangavel C, Rossignol N, Perronnet A, Barbot J, Popineau Y, Gueguen J (2004) Properties and microstructure of thermo-pressed wheat gluten films: a comparison with cast films. Biomacromolecules 5:1596–1601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pommet M, Redl A, Guilbert S, Morel M-H (2005) Intrinsic influence of various plasticizers on functional properties and reactivity of wheat gluten thermoplastic materials. J Cereal Sci 42:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shewry PR, Popineau Y, Lafiandra D, Belton P (2000) Wheat glutenin subunits and dough elasticity: findings of the EUROWHEAT project. Trends Food Sci Tech 11:433–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sessa DJ, Woods KK, Mohamed AA, Palmquist DE (2011) Melt-processed blends of zein with. polyvinylpyrrolidone 33:57–62Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Woods KK, Selling GW (2008) Melt reaction of zein with glyoxal to improve tensile strength and reduce solubility. J Appl Polym Sci 109:2375–2383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ma Z, Morgan DP, Felts D, Michailides TJ (2002) Sensitivity of Botryosphaeria dothidea from California pistachio to tebuconazole. Crop Protect 21:829–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Orliac O, Rouilly A, Silvestre F, Rigal L (2003) Effects of various plasticizers on the mechanical properties, water resistance and aging of thermo-moulded films made from sunflower proteins. Ind Crop Prod 18:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gueguen J, Viroben G, Noireaux P, Subirade M (1998) Influence of plasticizers and treatments on the properties of films from pea proteins. Ind Crop Prod 7:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McGrath K, Kaplan D (1997) Protein-based materials. In: Maskarinec SA, Tirrell DA (eds) Chemical synthesis of peptides and polypeptides. Birkhauser, Boston, pp 3–37Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Verbeek CJR, van den Berg LE (2010) Extrusion processing and properties of protein-based thermoplastics. Macromol Mat Eng 295:10–21Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mezgheni E, Vachon C, Lacroix M (2000) Bacterial use of biofilms cross-linked by gamma irradiation. Radiat Phys Chem 58:203–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhang X, Hoobin P, Burgar I, Do MD (2006) Chemical modification of wheat protein-based natural polymers: cross-linking effect on mechanical properties and phase structures. J Agri Food Chem 54:9858–9865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kurniawan L, Qiao GG, Zhang X (2007) Chemical modification of wheat protein-based natural polymers: grafting and cross-linking reactions with poly (ethylene oxide) diglycidyl ether and ethyl diamine. Biomacromolecules 8:2909–2915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang X, Do MD, Bilyk A (2007) Chemical modification of wheat-protein-based natural polymers: formation of polymer networks with alkoxysilanes to modify molecular motions and enhance the material performance. Biomacromolecules 8:1881–1889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kurniawan L, Qiao GG, Zhang X (2009) Formation of wheat-protein-based biomaterials through polymer grafting and crosslinking reactions to introduce new functional properties. Macromol Biosci 9:93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang X, Do MD (2009) Plasticization and crosslinking effects of acetone-formaldehyde and tannin resins on wheat protein-based natural polymers. Carbohydr Res 344:1180–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang X, Dean K, Burgar IM (2010) A high-resolution solid-state NMR study on starch-clay nanocomposites and the effect of aging on clay dispersion. Polym J 42:689–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Giannelis EP (1998) Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: synthesis, properties and applications. Appl Organomet Chem 12:675–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    LeBaron PC, Wang Z, Pinnavaia TJ (1999) Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: an overview. Appl Clay Sci 15:11–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schmidt D, Shah D, Giannelis EP (2002) New advances in polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites. Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 6:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ray SS, Bousmina M (2005) Biodegradable polymers and their layered silicate nanocomposites: In greening the 21st century materials world. Prog Mat Sci 50:962–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dean K, Yu L (2005) Biodegradable protein-nanoparticles composites. In: Smith R (ed) Biodegradable polymers for industrial applications. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, pp 289–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rhim J-W, Ng PKW (2007) Natural biopolymer-based nanocomposite films for packaging applications. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 47:411–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sinha Ray S, Okamoto M (2003) Polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites: a review from preparation to processing. Prog Polym Sci 28:1539–1641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fischer H (2003) Polymer nanocomposites: from fundamental research to specific applications. Mat Sci Eng 23:763–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zhang X, Do MD, Dean K, Hoobin P, Burgar IM (2007) Wheat-gluten-based natural polymer nanoparticle composites. Biomacromolecules 8:345–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Angellier-Coussy H, Torres-Giner S, Morel M-H, Gontard N, Gastaldi E (2008) Functional properties of thermoformed wheat gluten/montmorillonite materials with respect to formulation and processing conditions. J Appl Polym Sci 107:487–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vaia RA, Giannelis EP (1997) Polymer melt intercalation in organically-modified layered silicates: model predictions and experiment. Macromolecules 30:8000–8009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Guilherme MR, Mattoso LHC, Gontard N, Guilbert S, Gastaldi E (2010) Synthesis of nanocomposite films from wheat gluten matrix and MMT intercalated with different quaternary ammonium salts by way of hydroalcoholic solvent casting. Composites Part A 41:375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bertmer M, Wang M, Kruger M, Blumich B, Litvinov VM, van Es M (2007) Structural changes from the pure components to nylon 6-montmorillonite nanocomposites observed by solid-state NMR. Chem Mater 19:1089–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sothornvit R, Rhim J-W, Hong S-I (2009) Effect of nano-clay type on the physical and antimicrobial properties of whey protein isolate/clay composite films. J Food Eng 91:468–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tunc S, Angellier H, Cahyana Y, Chalier P, Gontard N, Gastaldi E (2007) Functional properties of wheat gluten/montmorillonite nanocomposite films processed by casting. J Membr Sci 289:159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Olabarrieta I, Gallstedt M, Ispizua I, Sarasua J-R, Hedenqvist MS (2006) Properties of aged montmorillonite-wheat gluten composite films. J Agri Food Chem 54:1283–1288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Georget DMR, Belton PS (2006) Effects of temperature and water content on the secondary structure of wheat gluten studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Biomacromolecules 7:469–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mangavel C, Barbot J, Popineau Y, Gueguen J (2001) Evolution of wheat gliadins conformation during film formation: a fourier transform infrared study. J Agri Food Chem 49:867–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mo C, Wu P, Chen X, Shao Z (2009) The effect of water on the conformation transition of Bombyx mori silk fibroin. Vib Spectrosc 51:105–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wellner N, Mills ENC, Brownsey G, Wilson RH, Brown N, Freeman J et al (2004) Changes in protein secondary structure during gluten deformation studied by dynamic fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Biomacromolecules 6:255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yuan Q, Lu W, Pan Y (2010) Structure and properties of biodegradable wheat gluten/attapulgite nanocomposite sheets. Polym Degrad Stab 95:1581–1587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    McBrierty V, Packer K (1993) Nuclear magnetic resonance in solid polymers. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Saito H, Ando I, Naito A (2006) Solid state NMR spectroscopy for biopolymers: principles and applications: Springer. The Netherlands, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Axelson DE, Russell KE (1985) Characterization of polymers by means of 13C NMR spectroscopy : (a) Morphology by Solid-State NMR (b) End-Group Studies. Prog Polym Sci 11:221–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zhang X, Burgar I, Lourbakos E, Beh H (2004) The mechanical property and phase structures of wheat proteins/polyvinyl alcohol blends studied by high-resolution solid-state NMR. Polymer 45:3305–3312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zhang X, Do MD, Hoobin P, Burgar I (2006) The phase composition and molecular motions of plasticized wheat gluten-based biodegradable polymer materials studied by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Polymer 47:5888–5896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    VanderHart DL, Asano A, Gilman JW (2001) NMR measurements related to clay-dispersion quality and organic-modifier stability in nylon-6/clay nanocomposites. Macromolecules 34:3819–3822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    VanderHart DL, Asano A, Gilman JW (2001) Solid-state nmr investigation of paramagnetic nylon-6 clay nanocomposites. 1. crystallinity, morphology, and the direct influence of Fe3+ on nuclear spins. Chem Mater 13:3781–3795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    VanderHart DL, Asano A, Gilman JW (2001) Solid-state nmr investigation of paramagnetic nylon-6 clay nanocomposites. 2. measurement of clay dispersion, crystal stratification, and stability of organic modifiers. Chem Mater 13:3796–3809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bourbigot S, VanderHart DL, Gilman JW, Awad WH, Davis RD, Morgan AB et al (2003) Investigation of nanodispersion in polystyrene–montmorillonite nanocomposites by solid-state NMR. J Polym Sci Pt B Polym Phys 41:3188–3213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kozak M, Domka L (2004) Adsorption of the quaternary ammonium salts on montmorillonite. J Phys Chem Solids 65:441–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wilhelm HM, Sierakowski MR, Souza GP, Wypych F (2003) Starch films reinforced with mineral clay. Carbohydr Polym 52:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dickinson LC, Yang H, Chu CW, Stein RS, Chien JCW (1987) Limits to compatibility in poly(x-methylstyrene)/poly(2,6-dimethylphenylene oxide) blends by NMR. Macromolecules 20:1757–1760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Havens JR, VanderHart DL (1985) Morphology of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers as studied by multiple-pulse proton NMR. Macromolecules 18:1663–1676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zhang X, Takegoshi K, Hikichi K (1993) Molecular motion in a blend of poly(vinylphenol) and poly(ethylene oxide) as studied by high-resolution solid-state carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. Macromolecules 26:2198–2201CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CSIRO Materials Science and EngineeringClaytonAustralia

Personalised recommendations