Plethysmographic Techniques in the Diagnosis of Venous Disease



Various techniques of plethysmography have been developed to evaluate venous function in the lower extremity. They have been extensively investigated, but have been replaced with color duplex scanning for the anatomic examination of the deep and superficial venous systems. In the current management of venous disease, plethysmography is useful to assist in the management of complex venous disease when multiple anatomic abnormalities are identified and to document improvement in venous function after interventions are performed. In this way, it functions similarly to an ankle-brachial index to document improvement after arterial revascularization is performed.

Several plethysmographic techniques have been developed employing different sensors to measure changes in blood volume in a limb including strain-gauge plethysmography (SGP), impedance plethysmography (IPG), photoplethysmography (PPG), and air plethysmography (APG). These will be described in detail after the general concepts of plethysmographic evaluation for reflux and obstruction are reviewed.


Venous disease Plethysmography Diagnosis 


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© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Vascular SurgeryUNC HospitalsChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.Vascular Surgery Division, Department of SurgeryUNC HospitalsChapel HillUSA

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