Ultrasonic Characterization of Carotid Plaques and Its Clinical Implications

  • Alberto Froio
  • Luca Rossi
  • Savino Pasquadibisceglie
  • Giorgio M. Biasi


In the last years, the concepts of plaque vulnerability, composition of the plaque, and ­cerebrovascular events have been vastly studied. The gray scale median (GSM) score has been proposed with the intent of identifying asymptomatic patients at high risk of stroke.

Several studies demonstrated the relationship between carotid plaque echolucency ­evaluated by GSM, hs-CRP, carotid plaque infiltration by macrophage, neovascularization, plaque rupture, embolic load to the brain, and eventually risk of stroke.

The GSM analysis has been included in the current guidelines for treatment of patients with carotid stenoses, both with endovascular and surgical approach.


Indication to treatment Echolucency Gray scale median Endarterectomy Stenting Stroke 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Froio
    • 1
  • Luca Rossi
    • 1
  • Savino Pasquadibisceglie
    • 1
  • Giorgio M. Biasi
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Surgical SciencesUniversity of Milano Bicocca, Vascular Surgery Unit, San Gerardo Teaching HospitalMonzaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Surgical SciencesUniversity of Milano BicoccaMonzaItaly
  3. 3.Vascular Surgery UnitSan Gerardo Teaching HospitalMonzaItaly

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