Laser Welding

  • William M. Steen

Abstract

The focused laser beam is one of the highest power density sources available to industry today. It is similar in power density to an electron beam. Together these two processes represent part of the new technology of high-energy-density processing. Table 4.1 compares the power density of various welding processes.

Keywords

Zinc Fatigue Vortex Porosity Magnesium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Beyer E., Behler K. and Herziger G. Influence oflaser beam polarisation in welding. Industrial Laser Annual Handbook 1990. Penwell Books, Tulsa, OK, 1990 pp. 157–160.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Arata Y. Challenge of laser advanced materials processing. Proc. Conf. on Laser Advanced Material Processing (LAMP’87), Osaka, May 1987. High Temperature Society of Japan, 1987, pp. 3–11.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Matsunawa A. Science of laser welding-mechanisms of keyhole and pool dynamics. Proc. ICALEO 2002, Phoenix, AZ, October 2002. LIA, 2002, paper 101.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Greses J., Barlow C.Y., Steen W.M. and Hilton P.A. Spectroscopic studies of plume/plasma in different gas environments. Proc. ICALEO 2001, Jacksonville, FL, October 2001. LIA, 2001, paper 808.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Greses J., Hilton P.A., Barlow C.Y. and Steen W.M. Plume attenuation under high power Nd:YAG laser welding. Proc. ICALEO 2002, Phoenix, AZ, October 2002. LIA, 2002, paper 808.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Mazumder J. Laser welding. Laser Material Processing, ed M. Bass. North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983, ch. 3, pp. 113–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Industrial Laser Annual Handbook 1990. Penwell Books, Tulsa, OK, 1990, pp. 7–15.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Kugler T. and Naeem M. Material processing with super modulation. Proc. ICALEO 2002, Phoenix, AZ, October 2002. LIA, 2002, paper 506.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Holtz R. Optimized laser applications with lamp pumped pulsed Nd:YAG lasers. Proc. ICALEO 2002, Phoenix, AZ, October 2002. LIA, 2002, paper M409.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Katayama S., Wu Y. and Matsunawa A. Laser weldability of Zn coated steels. Proc. ICALEO 2001, Jacksonville, FL, October 2001. LIA, 2001, paper P520.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Tsukamoto S., Kawaguchi I., Arakane G. and Honda H. Suppression of porosity using pulse modulation of laser power in 20 kW CO2 laser welding. Proc. ICALEO 2001, Jacksonville, FL, October 2001. LIA, 2001, paper 1702.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Lasag KLS brochure, 1997.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Akhter R. PhD Thesis, London University, 1990.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    INPRO Report LAS-11 August 1989 and LAS-12 October 1989, INPRO, Nurnbergstrasse 68/69, 1000 Berlin 30.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Loeffler K. High power CW Nd:YAGs advance. Industrial Laser Review July (1996), 13–16.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Duley W.W. UV Lasers Affects and Applications in Material Science. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Herziger G. and Kreuz E.W. Phys. Scri. T13 (1986), 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Raize& Y.P. Sov. Phys.-JETP 21 (1965), 1009. Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Ducharme et al.Proc. ICALEO’96, Orlando, FL, October-November 1996. LIA, 1996, pp. 10–19.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Matsunawa A. Role of surface tension in fusion welding. J. Welding Res. Inst. pt I 11(2) (1982);Google Scholar
  21. [20a]
    Matsunawa A. Role of surface tension in fusion welding. J. Welding Res. Inst. pt II 12(1) (1983);Google Scholar
  22. [20b]
    Matsunawa A. Role of surface tension in fusion welding. J. Welding Res. Inst. pt III 13(1) (1984).Google Scholar
  23. [21]
    Albright C.E. and Chiang S. High speed laser welding discontinuities. Proc. 7th Int. Conf. on Applications of Lasers and Electro Optics ICALEO’88, Santa Clara, CA, October-November 1988. Springer Verlag-IFS, 1988, pp. 207–213.Google Scholar
  24. [22]
    Wilgoss R.A., Megaw J.H.P.C. and Clarke J.N. Assessing the laser for power plant welding. Weld Met. Fabr. March (1979), 117.Google Scholar
  25. [23]
    Seaman F.D. Role of shielding gas in high power CO2 CW laser welding. SME Tech Paper no. MR77982, Society of Manufacturing Engineering, Dearborn, MI, 1977.Google Scholar
  26. [24]
    Sepold G., Rothe R. and Teske K. Laser beam pressure welding — a new technique. Proc. Conf. Laser Advanced Material Processing LAMP’87 Osaka, May 1987. High Temperature Society of Japan, 1987, pp. 151–156.Google Scholar
  27. [25]
    Duhamel R. Restrained joint laser welding. Industrial Laser Review August (1996), 3–4.Google Scholar
  28. [26]
    Norris I.M. High power laser welding of structural steels-current status. Proc. Conf. Advances in Joining and Cutting Processes’89, Harrogate, October 1989. The Welding Institute, Abingdon, Cambs, paper 55, 1989.Google Scholar
  29. [27]
    Shannon G. and Steen W.M. Laser welding with coaxial powder fill nozzle for sheet and thick section welding. Proc. ICALEO’96, Orlando, FL, October-November 1996. LIA, Orlando, FL, pp. 20–27.Google Scholar
  30. [28]
    Katayama S., Wu Y. and Matsunawa A. Laser weldability of zinc-coated steels. Proc. ICALEO’2001, Jacksonville, FL, October-November 2001. LIA, Orlando, FL, paper P520.Google Scholar
  31. [29]
    Akhter R. and Steen W.M. The gap model for welding zinc coated steel sheet. Proc. Conf. Laser Systems Applications in Industry, Turin, 7–9 November 1990. IATA 1991.Google Scholar
  32. [30]
    Tzeng F. PhD Thesis, Liverpool University, 1996.Google Scholar
  33. [31]
    Burrows G., Croxford N., Hoult A.P., Ireland C.L.M. and Weedon T.M. Welding characteristics of a 2 kW YAG laser. High Power Solid State Lasers (Proc. SPIE Conf., vol. 1021). 1988, pp. 159–166.Google Scholar
  34. [32]
    Nonhof C.J. Materials Processing with Nd:YAG Lasers. Electrochemical Publications Ltd, Ayr, Scotland, 1988, p. 192.Google Scholar
  35. [33]
    Alexander J. and Steen W.M. Effects of process variables on arc augmented laser welding. Proc. Optica ’80 Conf, Budapest, Hungary, November 1980.Google Scholar
  36. [34]
    Jorgensen M. Met. Constr. 12(2) (1980), 80.Google Scholar
  37. [35]
    Akhter R., Watkins K.G. and Steen W.M. Modifications of the composition of laser welds in electrogalvanised steel and the effects on corrosion properties. J. Mat. Manf. Proc. 5(4) (1990), 67–68.Google Scholar
  38. [36]
    Oakley P.J. 2 and 5 kW fast axial flow carbon dioxide laser material processing. Proc. Material Processing Symp. ICALEO’82, vol. 31. LIA, 1982, pp. 121–128.Google Scholar
  39. [37]
    Glasstone S. Textbook of Physical Chemistry. Macmillan, 1953, p. 450.Google Scholar
  40. [38]
    Duley W.W. and Mueller R.E. Laser penetration welding in low gravity environment. Proc. XXII ICHMT Int. Conf. on Manufacturing and Material Processing, Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, August 1990, pp. 1309–1319.Google Scholar
  41. [39]
    Steen W.M. and Eboo M. Arc augmented laser welding. Constr. III(7) (1979), 332–336.Google Scholar
  42. [40]
    Steen W.M. Arc augmented laser processing of materials. J. Appl. Phys. 51(11) (1980), 5636–5641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [41]
    Walz C., Seefeld T. and Sepold G. Process stability and design of seam geometry during hybrid welding. Proc. ICALEO 2001, Jacksonville, FL, October 2001. LIA, 2001, paper 305.Google Scholar
  44. [42]
    Engström H., Nilsson K. and Flinkfeldt J. Laser hybrid welding of high strength steels. Proc. ICALEO 2001, Jacksonville, FL, October 2001. LIA, 2001, paper 303.Google Scholar
  45. [43]
    Gu H. and Mueller R. Hybrid welding of galvanised steel sheet. Proc. ICALEO 2001, Jacksonville, FL, October 2001. LIA, 2001, paper 304.Google Scholar
  46. [44]
    Trentmann G. Laser welding doubles up to tackle aluminium. Europhotonics June-July (1997), 49–50.Google Scholar
  47. [45]
    O’Neill W. and Steen W.M. Infra red absorption by metallic surfaces as a result of powerful u/v pulses. Proc. ICALEO’88, Santa Clara, October-November 1988. Springer-Verlag and LIA, 1988, pp. 90–97.Google Scholar
  48. [46]
    Bonss S., Brenner B. and Beyer E. Hybrid welding with a CO2 and diode laser. Industrial Laser User 21 (2000), 26–28.Google Scholar
  49. [47]
    Narikiyo T., Miura H., Fujinaga S., Ohmori A. and Inoue K. Combination of two Nd:YAG laser beams and their welding characteristics. J. LaserAppl. 11(2) (1999), 91–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [48]
    Joining fire extinguishers. Industrial Laser Review April (1996), 3.Google Scholar
  51. [49]
    Matsunawa A. Proc. SPIE Conf. ECO 4, Hague, March 1991.Google Scholar
  52. [50]
    Lau K.H. and Man H.C. Excimer laser soldering for fine pitch surface mounted assembly. Proc. ICALEO’95, San Diego, CA, November 1995. Springer-Verlag and LIA, pp. 15–24.Google Scholar
  53. [51]
    Adachi A., Hirota J. and Hoshinouchi S. Fluxless soldering with laser assembly of TCP. Proc. ICALEO’95, San Diego, CA, November 1995. Springer-Verlag and LIA, pp. 35–41.Google Scholar
  54. [52]
    Brandner M., Seibold G., Chang C., Dausinger F. and Hugel H. Soldering with solid state and diode lasers: energy coupling, temperature rise and process window. J. Laser Appl. 12(5) (2000), 194–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [53]
    Fibres multiplex industrial YAG laser beams, lasers and applications. Laser Focus World 21(6) (1985), 8.Google Scholar
  56. [54]
    Roessler D.M. New laser processing developments in the automotive industry. Industrial Laser Annual Handbook. Penwell Books, Tulsa, OK, 1990, pp. 109–127.Google Scholar
  57. [55]
    Rofin Sinar. On the road to better automotive production. Laser Power Beam Processing March (1997), pp. 6–9.Google Scholar
  58. [56]
    Laser welding polymers enter mass production. Opto LaserEurope July (1997), 15–17.Google Scholar
  59. [57]
    DeMais R. Laser enhanced bonding produces strong seams. Laser Focus World August (1995), 32–33.Google Scholar
  60. [58]
    McNaught W., Deans W.F. and Watson J. High power laser welding in hyperbaric and water environments. J. Laser Appl. 9 (1997), 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [59]
    Pantsar H., Salminen A. and Kujanpaa V. Manufacturing procedure and cost analysis oflaser welded all steel sandwich panels. Proc. ICALEO 2001, Jacksonville, FL, October 2001. LIA, 2001, paper 1709.Google Scholar
  62. [60]
    Azuma K. and Ikemoto K. Laser welding technology for joining different sheet metals for one piece stamping. Laser Applications for Mechanical Industry Proc. NATO ASI, Erice, Sicily. Kluwer Academic, Netherland, 1993, pp. 219–233.Google Scholar
  63. [61]
    Marinoni G., Maccagno A. and Rabino E. Technical and economic comparison of laser technology with conventional technologies of welding. Proc. 6th Int. Conf. on Lasers in Manufacturing (LIM6), Birmingham, UK, May 1989, ed W.M. Steen. IFS Ltd, Bedford, UK, 1989, pp. 105–120.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • William M. Steen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations