Urinary retention can be defined as the inability to void.1 Bladder emptying difficulties can result from a myogenic, psychogenic or neurogenic problem, or a bladder outlet obstruction. Any of these can result in difficulty in the initiation to void, a low flow rate or a post-void residual of urine. The elderly in particular may suffer with detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractility (DHIC).2


Pelvic Floor Muscle Rectal Prolapse Bladder Outlet Obstruction Urethral Stricture Neurogenic Bladder 
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© Springer-Verlag London 2002

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  • J. Haslam

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