Liver Transplantation

  • Min Xu
  • Hideaki Okajima
  • Stefan Hubscher
  • Paul McMaster
Part of the Springer Specialist Surgery Series book series (SPECIALIST)


Liver transplantation was first attempted more than four decades ago, and has now become the standard treatment for almost all kinds of end-stage liver diseases. In the early 1980s, only 330 liver transplants had been performed all over the world and 1-year patient survival was only 28% [1]. A decade later more than 52 000 liver transplants had been undertaken worldwide [2]. In Europe alone, 24 564 liver transplants were performed by the end of 1996, and the 1-year patient survival in many centers was more than 80% [3]. The development of surgical techniques, improved donor selection and recipient management, the advent of CSA (cyclosporine/cyclosporin) and tacrolimus (FK506), and the use of UW (University of Wisconsin) preservation solution all contribute to the success of clinical liver transplantation today [3,4].


Bile Duct Liver Transplantation Hepatic Artery Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Acute Rejection 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Min Xu
  • Hideaki Okajima
  • Stefan Hubscher
  • Paul McMaster

There are no affiliations available

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