Organ Transplantation: an Historical Perspective

  • J. Andrew Bradley
  • David N. H. Hamilton
Part of the Springer Specialist Surgery Series book series (SPECIALIST)


Attempts at tissue transplantation have been recorded over the centuries, often in graphic detail. The earliest reports of transplantation in humans included several miracles. One of the best known examples is the thirteenth century story of Cosmas and Damian [11 (Fig. 1.1). They were Christian Arab saints who were martyred around AD 300 and were reputed to have successfully replaced the diseased leg of a sexton with that from a Moor who had died several days earlier. The use of autologous tissue transplants as a method for restoring mutilation of the nose dates back to an even earlier period. The practice originated in India and was modified to great effect in Europe by, amongst others, the sixteenth century plastic surgeon Gaspare Tagliacozzi [2]. Other early transplanters had more unrealistic achievements in mind such as the Frenchman Serge Voronoff who at the beginning of the century popularized the transplantation of monkey testis into man, in the mistaken belief that the procedure would stave off age-related deterioration in physical and mental agility [3].


Kidney Transplant Organ Transplantation Skin Graft Graft Rejection Donor Kidney 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Rinaldi E. The first homoplastic limb transplant according to the legend of Saint Cosmas and Saint Damian. Ital J Orthop Traumatol 1987; 13: 393–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Webster JP. Some portrayals of Gaspare Tagliacozzi. Plast Reconstr Surg 1968; 41: 411–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hamilton DNH. The monkey gland affair. London, Chatto 0000 Windus, 1986.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Terasaki PI. History of transplantation: thirty-five recollections. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory Publications, 1991.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Küss R, Bourget P. An illustrated history of organ transplantation. Rueil-Malmaisson, France: Sandoz Laboratories, 1992.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Woodruff MFA. The transplantation of tissues and organs. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 1960.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moore FD. Give and take. The development of tissue transplantation. Philadelphia London: WB Saunders, 1972.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hamilton DNH. In: Morris PJ, editor. Kidney transplantation, 3rd edn. London: WB Saunders, 1988.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jaboulay M. Greffe de reins au pli du coude par soudures artérielles et veineuses. Bulletin du Lyon médicale 1906; 107: 575–7.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Winkler EA. Ernst Unger; a pioneer in modern surgery. J Hist Med 1982; 37: 269–86.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hamilton DNH, Reid WA. Yu Yu Voronoy and the first human kidney allograft. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1984; 159: 289–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carrel A. La technique operatoire des anastomosis vasculaires et la transplantation des viscères. Lyons Médicale 1902; 99: 859–64.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gibson T, Medawar PB. The fate of skin homografts in man. J Anat 1943; 77: 299–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Medawar PB. The behaviour and fate of skin autografts and skin homografts in rabbits. J Anat 1944; 78: 176–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Simonsen M. Biological incompatibility in kidney transplantation in dogs. II serological investigations. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 1953; 32: 1–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dempster WJ. Kidney homotransplantation. Br J Surg 1953; 40: 447–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lawler RH, West JW, McNulty PH, Clancy EJ, Murphy RP. Homotransplantation of the kidney in the human. Supplemental report of a case. JAMA 1951; 147: 45–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dubost C, Oeconomos N, Nenna A, Milliez P. Resultats d’une tentative de greffe rénale. Bull Soc Med Hop Paris 1951; 67: 1372–82.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Küss R, Teinturier J, Milliez P. Quelques essais de greffe rein chez l’homme. Mem Acad Chir 1951; 77: 755–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Michon L, Hamburger J, Oeconomos N, Delinotte P, Richet G,Vaysse J, Une tentative de transplantation rénale chez l’homme. Aspects médicaux et biologiques. Presse Med 1953; 61: 1419–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hume DM, Merrill JP, Miller BF, Thorn GW. Experiences with renal homotransplantation in the human: Report of nine cases. J Clin Invest 1955; 34: 327–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Merrill JP, Murray JE, Harrison JE, Guild WR. Successful homotransplantation of the human kidney between identical twins. JAMA 1956; 160: 277–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brown JB. Homografting of skin: with report of success in identical twins. Surgery 1937; 1: 558–63.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Billingham RE, Brent L, Medawar PB. Actively acquired tolerance of foreign cells. Nature 1953; 172: 603–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Billingham RE, Brent L Medawar PB. Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. III. Actively acquired tolerance. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 1956; 239: 357–415.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Burnet FM, Fenner F. The production of antibodies, 2nd edn. Melbourne: MacMillan, 1949.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Owen RD. Immunogenetic consequences of vascular anastomosis between bovine twins. Science 1945; 102: 400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mitchison NA. Passive transfer of transplant immunity. Nature 1953; 171: 267–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Billingham RE, Brent L, Medawar PB. Quantitative studies on tissue transplant immunity. II The origin, strength and duration of actively and adoptively acquired immunity. Proc R Soc 1954; 143: 58–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gowans JL. The effect of the continuos re-infusion of lymph and lymphocytes on the output of lymphocytes from the thoracic duct of unanaesthetised rats. Br J Exp Pathol 1957; 38: 67–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Terasaki PL. Identification of the type of blood-cell responsible for the graft-versus-host reaction in chicks. J Embryol Exp Morphol 1959; 7: 394–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McGregor DD, McCullogh PJ, Gowans JI,. The role of the lymphocyte in antibody formation. Proc R Soc 1967; 168: 229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Miller JFAP. Effect of neonatal thymectomy on the immunological responsiveness of the mouse. Proc R Soc Series B 1962; 156: 415–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Brent L. A history of transplantation immunology. London: Academic Press. 1997.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Murray JE, Merrill JP, Dammin GJ, Dealy JB, Alexandra GW, Harrison JH. Kidney transplantation in modified recipients. Ann Surg 1962; 156: 337–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Merrill JP, Murray JE, Harrison JH, Freedman EA, Dealy JB, Dammin GJ. Successful homotransplantation of the human kidney between non-identical twins. N Engl J Med 1960; 262: 1251–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kuss R, Legrain M, Mathe G, Nedey R, Camey M. Homologous human kidney transplantation. Postgrad Med J 1962; 38: 528–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schwartz R, Dameshek W. Drug induced immunological tolerance. Nature 1959; 183: 1682–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schwartz R, Dameshek W. The effects of 6-mercaptopurine on homograft reactions. J Clin Invest 1960; 39: 952–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Calne RY. The rejection of renal homografts: inhibition in dogs by 6-mercaptopurine. Lancet 1960;i:417–18.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zukoski CF, Lee HM, Hume DM. The effect of 6-mercaptopurine on renal homograft survival in the dog. Surgical Forum 1960; 11: 470–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Calne RY, Alexandra GPJ, Murray JE. A study of the effects of drugs in prolonging survival of homologous renal transplants in dogs. Ann NY Acad Sci 1962; 99: 743–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hopewell J, Caine RY, Beswick I. Three clinical cases of renal transplantation. Br Med J 1964;i:411–13.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Murray JE, Merrill JP, Harrison JH, Wilson RE, Dammin GJ. Prolonged survival of human-kidney homografts by immunosuppressive drug therapy. N Engl J Med 1963; 268: 1315–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goodwin WE, Kaufman JJ, Mims MM et al. Human renal transplantation. I. Clinical experiences with six cases of renal transplantation. J. Urol. 1963; 89: 13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Starzl TE, Marchioro TL, Waddell WR. The reversal of rejection in human renal homografts with subsequent development of homograft tolerance. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1963; 117: 385–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Starzl TE, Marchioro TL, Talmage DW, Waddell WR. Splenectomy and thymectomy in human renal homotransplantation. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1963; 113: 929–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tilney NL, Murray JE. Thoracic duct fistula in human being renal transplantation. Surgical Forum 1966; 17: 234–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Franksson C, Blomstrand R. Drainage of the thoracic lymph duct during homologous kidney transplantation in man. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1967; 1: 123–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hume DM, Lee HM, Williams GM, White HJO,FerreWJ,Wolf JS, Comparative results of cadaver and related donor renal homografts in ntan and immunological implications of the outcome of second and paired transplants. Ann Surg 1966;164: 352–97.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Myburgh JA, Smit IA, Meyers AM, Botha JR, Browde S, Thomson PI). Total lymphoid irradiation in renal transplantation. World J Surg 1986; 10: 369–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Woodruff MFA, Anderson NF. Effect of lymphocyte depletion by thoracic duct fistula and administration of antilymphocyte serum on the survival of skin homografts in rats. Nature 1963; 200: 702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Monaco AP, Wood ML, Gray JG, Russell PS. Studies on heterologous anti-lymphocyte serum in mice II Effect on immune response. J Immunol 1966; 96: 229–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Starzl TE, Marchioro TL, Porter KA, Iwasaki Y, Cerilli GJ. The use of heterologous antilymphoid agents in canine renal and liver homotransplantation and in human renal homotransplantation. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1967; 124: 301–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Najarian JS, Simmons RI., Condie RM,’Ihomson EJ, Fryd DS, Howard RJ, Seven years’ experience with antilymphoblast globulin for renal transplant from cadaver donors. Ann Surg 1976; 184: 352–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kohler G, Milstein C. Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 1975; 256: 495–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cosimi AB, Burton RC, Colvin RB, Treatment of acute renal allograft rejection with OKT3 monoclonal antibody. Transplantation 1981; 32: 535–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ortho Multicenter Transplant Study Group. A randomized clinical trial of OKT3 monoclonal antibody for acute rejection of cadaveric renal transplants. N Engl J Med 1985; 313: 337–42.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dausset J. Iso-leucoanticorps and blood transfusion. Acta Haematol (Basel) 1958; 20: 156–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Payne R, Rolfs MR. Fetomaternal leukocyte incompatibility. J Clin Invest 1958; 37: 1756–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Van Rood JJ, Van Leeuwen A, Eernisse JG. Leukocyte antibodies in sera of pregnant women. Vox Sang 1959; 4: 427–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dausset J, Rapaport FT, Colombani J, Feingold N. A leukocyte group and its relationship to tissue histocompatibility in man. Transplantation 1965; 3: 701–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dausset J, Rapaport F’f, Ivanyi D, Collombani J. Tissue alloantigens and transplantation. In: Histocompatibility testing. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1965; 63–72.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Terasaki PI, Vredevoe DL, Porter KA, Mickey M R, Marchiora TL, Paris TD, et al. Serotyping for homotransplantation V. Evaluation of matching scheme. Transplantation 1966; 4: 688–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vredevoe Dl., Mickey MR, Goyette DR, Magnuson NS, Terasaki PI. Serotyping for homotransplantation VIII. Grouping of antisera from various laboratories into five groups. Ann NY Acad Sci 1966; 129: 521–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mickey MR, Kreisler M, Albert El), Tanaka N, Terasaki PI. Analysis of HL-A incompatibility in human renal transplants. Tissue Antigens 1971; 1: 57–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ting A, Morris PI. Matching for B-cell antigens of the HLADR series in cadaver renal transplantation. Lancet 1978; i:575–7.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kissmeycr-Nielson F, Olsen S, Peterson VP, Fjeldborg O. Hyperacute rejection of kidney allografts. Lancet 1966;n: 662–5.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Williams GM, Hume DM, Hudson RP, Morris PJ, Kano K, Milgrom F. Hyperacute renal-homograft rejection in man. N Engl J Med 1968; 279: 611–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Starzl TE, Lerner RA, Dixon FJ, Groth CG, Brettschneider L, Terasaki PI. Shwartzman reaction after human renal homo-transplantation. N Engl J Med 1968; 278: 642–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Opelz G, Sengar DPS, Mickey MR, Terasaki, PI. Effect of blood transfusions on subsequent kidney transplants. Transplant Proc 1973; 5: 253–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Michielson P. Hemodialyse et transplatation renale. European Dialysis Transplant Association Proceedings 1966; 3: 162.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Morris PJ, Ting A, Stocker J. Leukocyte antigens in renal transplantation. I The paradox of blood transfusions in renal transplantation. Med J Aust 1968; 2: 1088–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Carrel A. Results of the transplantation of blood vessels, organs and limbs. JAMA 1908; 51: 1662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Moore FD, Smith LL, Burnap TK, Dallenbach FD, Dammin GJ, Gruber VF, et al. One stage homotransplantation of the liver following total hepatectomy in dogs. Transplant Bull 1959; 6: 103–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Starzl TE, Kaup HE, Brock DR, Lazarus RE, Johnson RV. Reconstructive problems in canine liver homotransplantation with special reference to the postoperative role of hepatic venous flow. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1960; 111: 733–43.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Starzl TE. Experience in renal transplantation. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1964.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Collins GM, Bravo-Shugarman M, Terasaki PI. Kidney preservation for transplantation. 3. Initial perfusion and 30 hour storage. Lancet 1969;ii:1219–22.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Belzer FO, Ashby BS, Dunphy JE. Twenty-four-hour and 72-hour preservation of canine kidneys. Lancet 1967;ii:536–8.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Barnard CN. The operation. A human cardiac transplant: an interim report of a successful operation performed at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. S Afr Med J 1967; 41: 1271–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lower RR, Shumway NE. Studies on orthotopic homotransplantation of the canine heart. Surgical Forum 1960; 11: 18–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mollaret P, Goulon M. Le coma de’passe (m_moire preliminaire). Rev Neurol 1959;101: 3–15, 116–39.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    A commentary on “A definition of irreversible coma”. Report of the “ad hoc” committee of the Harvard Medical School to examine the definition of brain death. JAMA 1968;205:337–40.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Conference of Medical Royal Colleges and their Faculties in the UK. Diagnosis of brain death. Br Med J 1976;ií:1187–8.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hardy JD, Chavez CM, Kurrus FD, Neely WA, Eraslan S, Turner D, et al. Heart transplantation in man. JAMA 1964; 188: 1132–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Gripp RB, Stinson EB, Dong E, Clark DA, Shumway NE. Hemodynamic performance of the transplanted human heart. Surgery 1971; 70: 88–95.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Caves PK, Stinson EB, Billingham ME, Shumway NE. Per-cutaneous transvenous endomyocardial biopsy in human heart recipients. Ann Thorac Surg 1973; 16: 325–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Demikhov VP. Some essential points of the techniques of transplantation of the heart, lungs and other organs. Experimental transplantation of vital organs. Medgiz State Press for Medical Literature in Moscow, 1960. (Translated by Consultants Bureau, New York, 1962.)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lower RR, Stofer RC, Hurley EJ, Shumway NE. Complete homograft replacement of the heart and both lungs. Surgery 1961; 50: 842–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cooley DA, Bloodwell RD, Hallman GL, Nora JJ, Harrison GM, Leachman RD. Organ transplantation for advanced cardiopulmonary disease. Ann Thorac Surg 1967; 8: 30–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hardy JD, Webb WR, Dalton MI, Walker GR. Lung homo-transplantation in man. JAMA 1963; 186: 1065–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Montefusco CM, Veith FJ. Lung transplantation. Surg Clin North Am 1986; 66: 503–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Derome F, Barbier F, Ringoir S, Versieck J, Rolly G, Berzsenyi G, 10-month survival after lung homotransplantation in man. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1971; 61: 835–46.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Starzl TE. In The puzzle people. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Starzl TE, Groth CG, Brettschneider L, Penn I, Fulginiti VA, Moon JB, et al. Orthotopic homotransplantation of the human liver. Ann Surg 1968; 168: 392–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kelly WD, Lillehei RC, Merkel FK, Idezuki Y, Goetz FC. Allotransplantation of the pancreas and duodenum along with the kidney in diabetic nephropathy. Surgery 1967; 61: 827–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Dreyfuss M, Harri E, Hoffmann H, Kobel H, Pache W, Tscherter H. Cyclosporin A and C. New metabolites from Trichoderma polysporum. Eur J Appl Microbiol 1976; 3: 125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Borel JF, Feurer C, Gubler HU, Stahelin H. Biological effects of cyclosporin A: a new antilymphocytic agent. Agents Actions 1976; 6: 468–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kostakis AJ, White DJG, Caine RY. Prolongation of rat heart survival by cyclosporin A. International Research Communications System Med Sci: Cardiovascular System. 1977; 5: 280.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Calne RYC, White DIG. Cyclosporin A: a powerful immunosuppressant in dogs with renal allografts. International Research Communications System Med Sci: Cardiovascular System. 1977; 5: 595.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Caine RY, White DJG, Thiru S, Evans DB, McMaster P, Dunn DC, Cyclosporin A in patients receiving renal allografts from cadaver donors. Lancet 1978;ii:1323–7.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Caine RY, Rolles K, White DIG, Thiru S, Evans DB, McMaster P, Cyclosporin A initially as the only immunosuppressant in 34 recipients of cadaveric organs: 32 kidneys, 2 pancreases, and 2 livers. Lancet 1979;ii:1033–6.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Starzl TE, Weil R, Iwatsuki S, Klintmalm G, Schroter GPJ, Koep LJ, et al. The use of cyclosporine A and prednisone in cadaver kidney transplantation Surg Gynecol Obstet 1980; 151: 17–26.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    European Multicentre Trial Group. Cyclosporin in cadaveric renal transplantation: one-year follow-up of a multicentre trial. Lancet 1983;ií:986–9.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    The Canadian Multicenter Transplant Study Group. A randomized clinical trial of cyclosporin in cadaveric renal transplantation. N Engl J Med 1981; 309: 809–15.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Toronto Lung Transplant Group. Unilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary fibrosis. N Engl J Med 1986; 314: 1140–5.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jamieson SW. In: Morris PJ and Tilney NL, editors. Progress in transplantation 2. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1985; 147–66.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kino T, Hatanaka H, Miyata S, Inamura N, Nishiyama M, Yajima T, et al. FK-506, a novel immunosuppressant isolated from Streptomyces. II. Immunosuppressive effect of FK-506 in vitro. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1987; 40: 1256–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Starzl TE, Todo S, Fung J, Demetris AJ, Venkataramman R, Jain A. FK 506 for human liver, kidney and pancreas transplantation. Lancet 1989;ii:1000–4.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wahlberg JA, Love R, Landegaard L, Southard JH, Belzer FO. Successful 72 hour’s preservation of the canine pancreas. Transplant Proc 1987; 19: 1337–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Jamieson NV, Sundberg R, Lindell S, Lindell S, Claesson K, Moen J, et al. Preservation of the canine liver for 24–48 hours using simple cold storage with UW solution. Transplantation 1988; 46: 517–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Dubernard JM, Owen, E, Herzberg G, Lanzetta M, Martin X, Kapila H, Dawahra M, Hakim NS, “Human Hane Allograft: Report on first six months” Lancet 1999; 353: 71315–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Dickenson D, Hakim NS. Ethical issues in limb transplantation. Editorial in Postgraduate Medical Journal. Postgrad Med J, 1999; 75: 513–15.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Andrew Bradley
  • David N. H. Hamilton

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations