When I was taught mathematics at junior school in the late 1950s, there were no computers or calculators. Calculations, whether they were addition, subtraction, multiplication, division or square roots, had to be worked out in one’s head or with pencil and paper. We learnt our ‘times tables’ by reciting them over and over again until we could give the product of any pair of numbers up to 12 — numbers higher than 12 were computed long hand.
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