Advertisement

Prematurity

  • Andrew Lyon

Abstract

The perinatal mortality rate (stillbirths from 24 weeks’ gestation and first week neonatal deaths) in the UK is now less than 10 per 1000 total deliveries. The obstetric and paediatric causes of perinatal death for Scotland are shown in Tables 8.1 and 8.2. In the “unexplained < 2500 g” group in Table 8.1 premature labour or preterm rupture of membranes is present in 30% of the cases. In Table 8.2, problems of prematurity are second only to congenital abnormalities as the cause of neonatal death. The latter may be influenced by selective termination but any further decrease in perinatal mortality will rely on our ability to reduce prematurity and its problems. However the proportion of babies delivering preterm (before 37 completed weeks’ gestation) remains constant at around 6% of all deliveries. Preterm babies contribute significantly to the workload of a neonatal unit.

Keywords

Preterm Infant Preterm Birth Preterm Delivery Bacterial Vaginosis Chronic Lung Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adiotomre PN, Johnstone FD, Laing IA (1997) Effect of absent end diastolic flow velocity in the fetal umbilical artery on subsequent outcome. Arch Dis Child 76:F35-F38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson ABM, Turnbull AC (1982) Effects of oestrogens, progesterones and betamimetics in pregnancy. In: Enkin MW, Chalmers I (eds) Effectiveness and satisfaction in antenatal care. Heinemann, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. Baerts W, Fetter WPF, Hop WCJ et al. (1990) Cerebral lesions in preterm infants after tocolytic indomethacin. Dev Med Child Neurol 32:910–918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banker BQ, Larroche J-C (1962) Periventricular leukomalacia in infancy: a form of neonatal hypoxic encephalopathy. Arch Neurol 7:386–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauer CR (1992) Necrotizing enterocolitis. In: Sinclair JC, Bracken MB (eds) Effective care of the newborn infant. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowen FW, Chandra R, Avery GB (1973) Pulmonary interstitial emphysema with gas embolism in hyaline membrane disease. Am J Dis Child 126:117–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brownlee KG, Ng PC, Henderson MJ, Smith M, Green JH, Dear PRF (1992) Catabolic effect of dexamethasone in the preterm baby. Arch Dis Child 67:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cassell GH, Waites KB, Crouse DT et al. (1988) Association of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection of the lower respiratory tract with chronic lung disease and death in very-low-birth-weight infants. Lancet ii:240–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Casson IF, Clarke CA, Howard CV et al. (1997) Outcomes of pregnancy in insulin dependent diabetic women: results of a five year population cohort study. Br Med J 315:275–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark DA, Barkemeyer BM, Miller MJS (1993) Perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic risk factors and necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Res 32:207Google Scholar
  11. Clark DA, Miller MJS (1990) Intraluminal pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr 117: S64–S67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clark RH, Gerstmann DR, Null DM, DeLemos RA (1992) Prospective randomized comparison of high frequency oscillatory and conventional ventilation in respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatrics 89:5–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cliver S, Goldenberg RL, Cutter GR et al. (1992) The relationship among psychosocial profile, maternal size, and smoking in predicting fetal growth retardation. Obstet Gynaecol 80:262–267Google Scholar
  14. Cockburn F (1994) Neonatal brain and dietary lipids. Arch Dis Child 70:F1-F2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen-Overbeek T, Pearce MJ, Campbell S (1985) The antenatal assessment of utero placental and feto placental blood flow using doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound Med Biol 11:329–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cole SK, Hey EN, Thomson AM (1986) Classifying perinatal death: an obstetric approach. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 93:1204–1212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cooke RW (1991) Factors associated with chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child 66:776–779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crowley P (1992) Antibiotics for preterm prelabour rupture of membranes. In: Enkin MW, Keirse MJNC, Renfrew MJ, Neilson JP (eds) Pregnancy and childbirth module, Cochrane database of systematic reviews: Review No. 04391. Published through Cochrane Updates on Disk, Oxford. Update SoftwareGoogle Scholar
  19. Crowley P, Chalmers I, Keirse MJC (1990) The effects of corticosteroid administration before preterm delivery: an overview of the evidence from controlled trials. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 97:11–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crowther CA, Alfirevic Z (1993) Antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) prior to preterm delivery. In: Enkin MW, Keirse MJNC, Renfrew MJ, Neilson JP (eds) Pregnancy and childbirth module, Cochrane database of systematic reviews: Review No. 2955. Published through Cochrane Updates on Disk, Oxford. Update Software.Google Scholar
  21. Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Haslam RR, Robinson JS, Group AS (1995) Australian collaborative trial of antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone (ACTOBAT) for prevention of neonatal respiratory disease. Lancet 345:877–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Coalson JJ, Winter V, deLemos RA (1995) Decreased alveolarization in baboon survivors with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 152:640–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cummings JJ, D’Eugenio DB, Gross SJ (1989) A controlled trial of dexamethasone in preterm infants at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. N Engl J Med 320: 1505–13510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cunningham S, Fleck BW, Elton RA, Mcintosh N (1995) Transcutaneous oxygen levels in retinopathy of prematurity. Lancet 346:1464–1465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. de Vries LMS, Eken P, Groenendaal F, Van Haastert IC, Meiners LC (1993) Correlation between the degree of periventricular leukomalacia diagnosed using cranial ultrasound and MRI later in infancy in children with cerebral palsy. Neuropaediatrics 24:263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dotsch J, Hohmann M, Kuhl PG (1997) Neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with maternal haemolysis elevated liver enzymes and low platelets. Eur J Pediatr 156:389–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doyle LW (1995) Outcome to five years of age of children born at 24–26 weeks’ gestational age in Victoria. Med J Aust 163:11–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Erickson AM, de la Monte SM, Moore GW, Hutchins GM (1987) The progression of morphologic changes in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Pathol 127:474–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Erskine FLA, Ritchie JWK (1985) Umbilical artery blood flow characteristics in normal and growth retarded fetuses. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 92:605–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Eschenbach DA, Nugent RP, Rao AV et al. (1991) A randomized placebo-controlled trial of erythromycin for the treatment of Ureaplasma urealyticum to prevent premature labour. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164:734–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fanaroff AA, Wright LL, Stevenson DK et al. (1995) Very low birthweight outcomes of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network, May 1991 through December 1992. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173:1423–1431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fenton AC, Field DJ, Mason E, Clarke M (1990) Attitudes to viability of preterm infants and their effect on figures for perinatal mortality. Br Med J 300:434–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ferrara TB, Hoekstra RE, Couser RJ et al. (1994) Survival and follow-up of infants at 23 to 26 weeks of gestational age: effects of surfactant therapy. J Pediatr 124:119–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fleck BW, Wright E, Dhillon B, Millar GT, Laing IA (1995) An audit of the 1995 Royal College of Ophthalmologists guidelines for screening for retinopathy of prematurity applied retrospectively in one regional neonatal intensive care unit. Eye 9(suppl.):31–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Geary M (1997) The HELLP syndrome. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104:887–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Glasgow JF, Thomas PS (1977) Rachitic respiratory distress in small preterm infants. Arch Dis Child 52:268–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Greenough A, Roberton NRC (1985) Morbidity and survival in neonates ventilated for the respiratory distress syndrome. Br Med J 290:597–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Greenough A, Emery EF, Gamsu HR (1992) Dexamethasone and hypertension in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr 151: 134–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Groneck P, Speer CP (1995) Inflammatory mediators and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Arch Dis Child 73:F1–F3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Groneck P, Götze-Speer B, Oppermann M, Eiffert H, Speer CP (1994) Association of pulmonary inflammation and increased microvascular permeability during the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: a sequential analysis of inflammatory mediators in respiratory fluids of high risk preterm infants. Pediatrics 91:712–718Google Scholar
  41. Groneck P, Goetze-Speer B, Speer CP (1996) Inflammatory bronchopulmonary response of preterm infants with microbial colonisation of the airways at birth. Arch Dis Child 74:F51-F55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Halliday HL (1996a) Where are we now with the prenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant. Biol Neonate 69:186–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Halliday HL (1996b) Natural vs synthetic surfactants in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Drugs 51:768–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hammarlund K, Sedin G, Strömberg B (1983) Transepidermal water loss in newborn infants. VIII. Relation to gestational age and post-natal age in appropriate and small for gestational age infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 72:721–728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hauth JC, Goldenberg RL, Andrew W (1995) Reduced incidence of preterm delivery with metronidazole and erythromycin in women with bacterial vaginosis. N Engl J Med 333:1732–1736PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hawdon JM, Ward Piatt MP, Aynsley-Green A (1992) Patterns of metabolic adaptation for preterm and term infants in the first neonatal week. Arch Dis Child 67:357–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hawthorne G, Robson S, Ryall EA et al. (1997) Prospective population based survey of outcome in pregnancy in diabetic women: results of the Northern Diabetic Pregnancy Audit, 1994. Br Med J 315:279–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hey EN, Lloyd DJ, Wigglesworth JS (1986) Classifying perinatal death: fetal and neonatal factors. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 93:1213–1223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hillier SL, Martius M, Krohn M et al. (1988) A case-control study of chorioamniotic infection and histologic chorioam-nionitis and prematurity. N Engl J Med 319:972–978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hoekstra RE, Jackson JC, Myers TF et al. (1991) Improved survival following multiple doses of bovine surfactant in very premature neonates at risk for respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatrics 88:10–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Horsman A, Ryan SW, Congdon PJ, Truscott JG, James JR (1989) Osteopenia in extremely low birthweight infants. Arch Dis Child 64:485–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hufnagle KG, Khan SN, Penn D et al. (1982) Renal calcification: a complication of long term frusemide therapy in premature infants. Pediatrics 70:360–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Huhta JC, Moise KJ, Fisher DJ et al. (1987) Detection and quantitation of constriction of the fetal ductus arteriosus by Doppler echocardiography. Circulation 2:406–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ikegami M, Jobe AH, Newnham J et al. (1997) Repetitive prenatal glucocorticoids improve lung function and decrease growth in preterm lambs. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156:178–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ikonen RS, Kuusinen EJ, Janas MO, Koivikko MJ, Sorto AE (1988) Possible etiological factors in extensive periventricular leukomalacia of preterm infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 77:489–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jobe AH, Ikegami M (1998) Mechanisms initiating lung injury in the preterm. Early Hum Dev 53:81–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Johnstone FD, Haddad NG, Hoskins P et al. (1988) Umbilical artery doppler flow velocity waveform; the outcome of pregnancies with absent diastolic flow. Eur J Obstet Gynaecol Reprod Biol 28:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kanto WP, Wilson R, Breart GL et al. (1987) Perinatal events and necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. Am J Dis Child 141:167–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Khong TY, De Wolf F, Robertson WB, Brosens I (1986) Inadequate maternal vascular response to placentation in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and by small-for-gestational age infants. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 93:1049–1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Koh THHG, Aynsley-Green A, Tarbit M, Eyre JA (1988) Neural dysfunction during hypoglycemia. Arch Dis Child 63:1353–1358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lamont RF, Taylor-Robinson D, Newman M, Wigglesworth J, Elder MG (1986) Spontaneous early preterm labour associated with abnormal genital bacterial colonization. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 93:804–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Leitich H, Egarter C, Husslein P, Kaider A, Schemper M (1997) A meta-analysis of low dose aspirin for the prevention of intrauterine growth retardation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104:450–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lettieri L, Vintzileos AM, Rodis JF, Albini AM, Salafia CM (1993) Does “idiopathic” preterm labor resulting in preterm birth exist ? Am J Obstet Gynecol 168:1480–1485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Levene MI, Dowling S, Graham M, Fogelman K, Galton M, Philips M (1992) Impaired motor function (clumsiness) in five-year-old children: correlation with neonatal ultrasound scan. Arch Dis Child 67:687–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Leveno KJ, Cunningham FG (1992) Beta-adrenergic agents for preterm labour. N Engl J Med 327:349–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lipscombe AP, Reynolds EOR, Blackwell RJ et al. (1981) Pneumothorax and cerebral haemorrhage in preterm infants. Lancet i:414–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ (1988) Adverse neurodevelopmental outcome of moderate hypoglycaemia. Br Med J 297: 1304–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lucas A, Brooke OG, Baker BA, Bishop N, Morley R (1989) High alkaline phosphatase activity and growth in preterm neonates. Arch Dis Child 64:902–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ et al. (1990) Early diet in preterm babies and developmental status at 18 months. Lancet 335:1477–1481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lucey JL, Dangman B (1984) A re-examination of the role of oxygen in retrolental fibroplasia. Pediatrics 73:82–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lumley J (1993) The epidemiology of preterm birth. Clin Obstet Gynaecol 7(3):477–498Google Scholar
  72. Lyon AJ, McColm J, Middlemist L et al. (1997) Randomised trial of erythromycin on the development of chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child 78:F10-F14Google Scholar
  73. Macfarlane A, Cole S, Johnson A, Botting B (1988) Epidemiology of birth before 28 weeks of gestation. Br Med Bull 44: 861–891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Maher JE, Cliver SP, Goldernberg RL et al. (1994) The effect of corticosteroid therapy in the very premature infant. Am J Obst Gynaecol 170:869–873Google Scholar
  75. Major CA, Lewis DF, Harding JA, Port MA, Garite TJ (1994) Tocolysis with indomethacin increases the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in the low-birth-weight neonate. Am J Obstet Gynecol 170:102–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Markestad T, Aksnes L, Finne PH, Aarskog D (1984) Plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in premature infants. Pediatr Res 18:269–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McDonald HM, O’Loughlin JA, Polley P et al. (1992) Prenatal microbiological risk factors associated with preterm birth. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99:190–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McDonald HM, O’Loughlin JA, Vigneswaran R et al. (1997) Impact of metronidazole therapy on preterm birth in women with bacterial vaginosis flora (Gardnerella vaginalis): a randomized, placebo controlled trial. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104:1391–1397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. McDonnell M, Serra-Serra V, Gaffnet G, Redman CWG, Hope PL (1994) Neonatal outcome after pregnancy complicated by abnormal velocity waveforms in the umbilical artery. Arch Dis Child 70:F84–F89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. McGregor JA (1988) Prevention of preterm births. New initiatives based on microbial-host interactions. Obset Gynecol Survey 43:1–14Google Scholar
  81. Meyer MB (1977) Effects of maternal smoking and altitude on birth weight and gestation. In: Reed DM, Stanley FJ (eds) The epidemiology of prematurity. Urban & Schwarzenberg, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  82. Milligan DWA, Issler H, Massam M, Reynolds EOR (1984) Treatment of neonatal pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture. Lancet i: 1010–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Modi N (1992) Sodium intake in preterm babies. Arch Dis Child 69:87–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Morley CJ (1997) Systematic review of prophylactic vs rescue surfactant. Arch Dis Child 77:F70–F74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Naeye RL (1980) Seasonal variations in coitus and other risk factors, and the outcome of pregnancy. Early Hum Devel 4:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ng PC (1993) The effectiveness and side effects of dexamethasone in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Arch Dis Child 68:330–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Northway WH Jr, Rosan RC, Porter DY (1967) Pulmonary disease following respirator therapy of hyaline membrane disease: bronchopulmonary dysplasia. N Engl J Med 276:357–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Oppenheimer SJ, Snodgrass GJAI (1980) Neonatal rickets: Histopathology and quantitative bone changes. Arch Dis Child 55:945–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. O’Shea TM, Kothadia JM, Klinepeter KL et al. (1999) Randomized placebo-controlled trial of a 42-day tapering course of dexamethasone to reduce the duration of ventilator dependency in very low birth weight infants: outcome of study participants at 1-year adjusted age. Pediatrics 104:15–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Papile LA, Burstein J, Burstein R, Koffler H (1978) Incidence and evolution of subependymal and intraventricular haemorrhage: a study of infants with birthweight <1500g. J Pediatr 92:529–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Pennefather PM, Tin W, Clarke MP, Fritz S, Strong NP (1996) Retinopathy of prematurity in a controlled trial of prophylactic surfactant treatment. Br J Ophthalmol 80:420–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Philips AGS (1994) The changing face of neonatal infection: experience at a regional medical center. Pediatr Infect Dis 13:1098–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pike MG, Holstrom G, de Vries LS et al. (1994) Patterns of visual impairment associated with lesions of the preterm infant brain. Dev Med Child Neurol 36:849–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pinto-Martin JA, Riolo S, Cnaan A et al. (1995) Cranial ultrasound prediction of disabling and nondisabling cerebral palsy at age two in a low birthweight population. Pediatrics 95:249–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Rennie JM, Wheater M, Cole TJ (1996) Antenatal steroid administration is associated with an improved chance of intact survival in preterm infants. Eur J Paediatr 155:576–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rennie JM (1997) Neonatal cerebral ultrasound. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  97. Rojas MA, Gonzalez A, Bancalari E, Claure N, Poole C, Silva-Neto G (1995) Changing trends in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of neonatal chronic lung disease J Pediatr 126:605–610Google Scholar
  98. Rushton DI, Preston PR, Durbin GM (1985) Structure and evolution of echodense lesions in the neonatal brain: a combined ultrasound and necropsy study. Arch Dis Child 60: 798–808PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Scottish Low Birthweight Study Group (1992) The Scottish Low Birthweight Study: I Survival, growth, neuromotor and sensory impairment. Arch Dis Child 67:675–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shennan AT, Dunn MS, Ohlsson A, Lennox K, Hospkins EM (1988) Abnormal pulmonary outcomes in premature infants: prediction from oxygen requirements in the neonatal period. Pediatrics 82:527–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Shrivastava A, Lyon AJ, Mcintosh N (2000) The effect of dexa-methasone on growth, mineral balance and bone mineralisation in preterm infants with chronic lung disease. Eur J Pediatr 159:380–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sibai B, Caritis SN, Thorn E et al. (1993) Prevention of preeclampsia with low-dose aspirin in healthy, nulliparous pregnant women. N Engl J Med 329:1213–1218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Simon C, Schröder H, Beyer C, Zerbst T (1991) Neonatal sepsis in an intensive care unit and results of treatment. Infection 19:146–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Steichen JJ, Gratton TL, Tsang RC (1980) Osteopenia of prematurity: the cause and possible treatment. J Pediatr 96:528–534PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Stoll BJ (1994) Epidemiology of necrotizing enterocolitis. Clin Perinatol 21:205–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Takashima J, Tanaka K (1978) Development of cerebral architecture and its relationship to periventricular leukomalacia. Arch Neurol 35:11–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Terry TL (1942) Extreme prematurity and fibroplastic overgrowth of persistent vascular sheath behind each crystalline lens. Am J Ophthalmol 25:203–204Google Scholar
  108. Tin W, Wariyar U, Hey E for the Northern Neonatal Network (1997) Changing prognosis for babies of less than 28 weeks’ gestation in the north of England between 1983 and 1994. Br Med J 313:107–111Google Scholar
  109. Toce SS, Farrell PM, Leavitt LA, Samules DP, Edwards DK (1984) Clinical and roentgenographic scoring systems for assessing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Dis Child 138:581–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Trounce JQ, Rutter N, Levene MI (1986) Periventricular leucomalacia and intraventricular haemorrhage in the preterm neonate. Arch Dis Child 61:1196–1202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Tschanz SA, Damke BM, Burri PH (1995) Influence of postnatally administered glucocorticoids on rat lung growth. Biol Neonate 68:229–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tyson J, Guzick D, Rosenfield CR et al. (1990) Prenatal care evaluation and cohort analyses. Pediatrics 85:195–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Uauy RD, Fanaroff AA, Korones SB et al. (1991) Necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants: biodemographic and clinical correlates. J Pediatr 119:185–192Google Scholar
  114. Vesikari T, Janas M, Grönroos P et al. (1985) Neonatal septicaemia. Arch Dis Child 60:542–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Watterberg KL, Demers LM, Scott SM, Murphy SM (1996) Chorioamnionitis and early lung inflammation in infants in whom bronchopulmonary dysplasia develops. Pediatrics 97:210–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Watts DH, Krohn KA, Hillier SL, Eschenbach DA (1992) The association of occult amniotic fluid infection with gestational age and neonatal outcome among women in preterm labor. Obstet Gynecol 99:2992–2999Google Scholar
  117. Wilkinson AR, On behalf of the EPIcure Study Steering Group (1997) The extremely preterm baby — a population based study of outcomes of babies born before 26 weeks gestation in the UK and Ireland. Pediatr Res 42:402Google Scholar
  118. Wood NS, Marlow N, Costeloe K, Gibson AT, Wilkinson AR (2000) Neurologic and developmental disability after extremely preterm birth. EPICure Study Group. N Eng J Med 343:378–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Yeh TF, Lin IJ, Hsieh WS et al. (1997) Early postnatal dexamethasone therapy for the prevention of chronic lung disease in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: a multicentre clinical trial. Pediatrics 100:715–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yeh TF, Lin YJ, Huang CC et al. (1998) Early dexamethasone therapy in preterm infants: a follow-up study. Pediatrics 101:E7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Yoon BH, Kim CJ, Romero R et al. (1998) Experimentally induced intrauterine infection causes fetal brain white lesions in rabbits. Am J Obstet Gynecol 177:797–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zimmermann P, Eirio V, Koskinen J, Kujansuu E, Ranta T (1997) Doppler assessment of the uterine and uteroplacental circulation in the second trimester in pregnancies at high risk for pre-eclampsia and/or intrauterine growth retardation: comparison and correlation between different Doppler parameters. Ultrasound Obstet Gynaecol 9:330–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zuckerman H, Shalev E, Gilad G et al. (1984) Further studies of the inhibition of preterm labor by indomethacin. II. Double blind study. J Perinatol Med 12:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Lyon

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations