Congenital Abnormalities and the Examination of the Fetus Following Prenatal Suspicion of Congenital Abnormality

  • Jean W. Keeling
  • Patricia A. Boyd


Congenital malformations are an important cause of prenatal, perinatal, infant mortality and morbidity. Three percent of newborns have a single major malformation and 0.7% have multiple major defects. The frequency is much higher prenatally, the majority aborting spontaneously. They have fascinated curious individuals for centuries but during the past 50 years infants with major anomalies have become the focus of increasing and diverse professional expertise and consume a large slice of health budgets in developed countries. Their importance as a cause of perinatal mortality has grown as deaths from intrapartum problems have declined and better neonatal care has improved the survival of normally formed low-birthweight babies (see Chap. 8). Clinical interest in malformations has been enhanced because sophisticated surgical and anaesthetic management makes correction of some major defects possible.


Amniotic Fluid Prenatal Diagnosis Neural Tube Defect Maternal Serum Dysmorphic Feature 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean W. Keeling
  • Patricia A. Boyd

There are no affiliations available

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