The Reproductive System

  • Jørn Müller
  • Niels Græm


The very complex and specific development of the genital system in male and female embryos and fetuses is under genetic and hormonal control. Recently, sex chromosomal and autosomal genes responsible for primary sex differentiation have been discovered, and effects of many hormones on the subsequent development of gonads, ducts and external genitalia are known. Abnormal sex differ-entiantion and malformations due to genetic and hormonal defects are relatively well described. Less is known about the role of environmental factors. A possible relationship between prenatal exposure to exogenous oestrogen-like substances and congenital abnormalities of the urogenital system, and infertility and testicular germ cell tumours in adult life has recently been subjected to much attention (Toppari et al. 1996).


Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia External Genitalia Gonadal Dysgenesis Urogenital Sinus Wolffian Duct 
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© Springer-Verlag London 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jørn Müller
  • Niels Græm

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