Liver and Gall Bladder

  • D. Ian Rushton


The embryology of the liver has been described in detail by Elias (1955) and Du Bois (1963). The hepatic anlage first appears about the 18th day of embryonic life as an endodermal diverticulum, arising from the duodenum. By the 25th day it forms a T-shaped outgrowth which is invaded by vessels derived from the vitelline and umbilical veins. The larger cephalad portion of the diverticulum, the pars hepatica, gives rise to the parenchymal cells and hepatic ducts, while the smaller caudal portion, the pars cystica, forms the gall bladder. The pars intermedia, linking the two portions, forms the cystic duct. It is now believed that the rudimentary bile ducts of the liver are derived from the parenchymal cells (Koga 1971; Ruebner et al. 1990; Blankenberg et al. 1991) and are not, as was previously held, invaded by the developing duct system.


Bile Duct Gall Bladder Biliary Atresia Choledochal Cyst Intrahepatic Bile Duct 
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© Springer-Verlag London 2001

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  • D. Ian Rushton

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