Iatrogenic Disease

  • Allan G. Howatson


Iatrogenic injury is a feature of all medical practice but it is perhaps no where more accepted as an unavoidable consequence of therapy than in obstetric and neonatal medicine. Classic obstetric iatrogenic pathology has been with us since time immemorial and despite the recognition of causal factors remains a not infrequent occurrence (Ennis and Vincent 1990; CESDI Fifth Report 1998).


Obstet Gynecol Patent Ductus Arteriosus Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Chorionic Villus Sampling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abu-Osba (1991) Treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn: update. Arch Dis child 66:74–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acker DB, Sachs BP, Friedman EA (1985) Risk factors for shoulder dystocia. Obstet Gynecol 66:762–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adzick NS, Harrison MR, Crombleholme TM, Flake AW, Howell LJ (1998) Fetal lung lesions: management and outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 129:884–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aggarwal V, Prakash C, Yadav J, Chattopadhya D (1997) Prevalence of transfusion associated infections in multi-transfused children in relation to mandatory screening of HIV in donated blood. SE Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28:699–706Google Scholar
  5. Albersheim SG, Solimano AJ, Sharma AK, Smyth JA, Rotschjild A, Wood BJ. (1989) Randomized double blind controlled trial of long term diuretic therapy for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr 115:615–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiu CJ, Golding MR, Linder JB, Fries CC (1967) Pulmonary venous air embolism: a haemodynaemic reappraisal. Surgery 61:816–819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chudley AE, Brown DR, Holzman IR, Oh KS (1980) Nutritional rickets in two very low birth weight infants with chronic lung disease. Arch Dis Child 55:687–690PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cifuentes RF, Olley PM, Balfe JW, Radde IC, Soldin SJ (1979) Indomethacin and renal function in premature infants with persistent ductus arteriosus. J Pediatr 95:583–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clarke TA, Coen RW, Feldman B, Papile L (1980) Eosophageal perforations in premature infants and comments on diagnosis. Am J Dis Child 134:367–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen C, Olsen MM (1981) Paediatric total parenteral nutrition. Arch Pathol Lab Med 105:152–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen AW, Otto SR (1980) Obstetric clavicular fractures. J Reprod Med 25:119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Collaborative Dexamethasone Trial Group (1991) Dexametha-sone therapy in neonatal lung disease: an international placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics 88:421–427Google Scholar
  13. Confidential Enquiry into Stillbirths and deaths in Infancy (CESDI) 5th Annual Report (1988) London: Maternal and Child Health Research Consortium.Google Scholar
  14. Cooke RWI (1991) Factors associated with chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child 66:776–779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Corazza MS, Davis RF, Merritt TA, Bejar R, Cvetnic W (1984) Prolonged bleeding time in preterm infants receiving indomethacin for patent ductus arteriosus. J. Pediatr 105:292–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crapo JD, Peters-Golden M, Marsh-Salin J, Shelburne J (1978) pathologic changes in the lungs of oxygen-adapted rats. A morphometric analysis. Lab Invest 39:640–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cromblehome TM, Adzick NS, DeLorimier AA, Longaker MT, Harrison MR, Charlton VE (1990) Carotid artery reconstruction following extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Am J Dis Child 144:872–874Google Scholar
  18. Cromblehome T, Harrison M, Golbus M et al. (1990) Fetal intervention in obstructive uropathy: prognostic indicators and efficacy of intervention. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162:1239–1244Google Scholar
  19. Cummings JJ, D’Eugenio DB, Gross SJ (1989) A controlled trial of dexamethasone in preterm infants at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. New Eng J Med 320: 1505–1510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cunniff C, Jones KL, Phillipson J, Benirschke K, Short S, Wujek J (1990) Oligohydramnios sequence and renal malformation associated with maternal enalapril use. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162:187–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Daffos F, Capella Paulovsky M, Forester F (1985) Fetal blood sampling during pregnancy with use of a needle guided by ultrasound: a study of 606 consecutive cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 153:655–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. De Lemos RA, Coalson JJ, Gerstmann DR, Kuehl TJ, Null DM (1987) Oxygen toxicity in the premature baboon with hyaline membrane disease. Am Rev Resp Dis 136:677–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Demir RH, Gleicher N, Myers SA (1989) Atraumatic antepartum subdural haematoma causing fetal death. Am J Obst Gynaecol 160:619–620Google Scholar
  24. De Rubertis FR, Michelia MF, Beck N, Davis BB (1970) Complications of diuretic therapy: severe alkalosis and syndrome resembling inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Metabolism 19:709–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dike AE, Christie JM, Kurtz JB, Teo CG (1998) Hepatitis C in blood transfusion recipients identified at the Oxford Blood Centre in the national HCV look-back programme. Transfusion Med 8:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dmochowski RR, Crandell SS, Corrieri VN (1986) Bladder injury and uroascites from umbilical artery catheterization. Pediatrics 77, 421–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Downing GJ, Hayen LK, Kilbride HW (1993) Acquired subglottic cysts in the low birth-weight infant: characteristics, treatment and outcome. Am J Dis Child 147:971–974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dean JC, Moore JJ, Turnpenny PD (2000) Developing diagnostic criteria for the fetal anticonvulsant syndromes. Seizure 9:233–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Drew JH, Landau LI, Acton CM, Kent M, Campbell PE (1978) Pulmonary interstitial emphysema requiring lobectomy. Complication of assisted ventilation. Arch Dis Child 53:424–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Drucker DEM, Greenfield LJ, Ehrlich F, Salzberg AM (1986) Aorto-iliac aneurysms following umbilical artery catheterization. J Ped Surg 21:725–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Edwards MJ, Shiota K, Smith MSR, Walsh DA (1995) Hyperthermia and birth defects. Reprod Toxicol 9:411–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ehrenkranz RA, Bonta AW, Albow RC, Warshaw JB (1978) Amelioration of bronchopulmonary dysplasia following vitamin E administration. A preliminary report. New Eng J Med 299:564–568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ellison RC, Peckham GJ, Lang P et al. (1983) Evaluation of the preterm infant for patent ductus arteriosus. Pediatrics 71:364–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. ELSO Registry 1990. Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) Registry. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, February 1990Google Scholar
  35. Emery EF, Greenough A (1992a) Neonatal blood pressure levels of preterm infants who did and did not develop chronic lung disease. Early Hum Devel 31:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Emery EF, Greenough A (1992b) Blood pressure levels at follow up of preterm infants with and without chronic lung disease. Pediatr Res 32:620A.Google Scholar
  37. Emery EF, Greenough A (1992c) Effect of dexamethasone on blood pressure: relationship to postnatal age. Eur J Pediatr 151:364–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ennis M, Vincent CA (1990) Obstetric accidents: a review of 64 cases. Br Med J 300: 1365–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ernberg and Nowak (1984) Palatal groove formation in neonates and infants with orotracheal tubes. Am J Dis Child 138:974–975Google Scholar
  40. Espinosa H, Paredes CG (1974) Endotracheal injuries traumatic perforation of the pharynx in a newborn baby. J Pediatr Surg 9:247–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Evans M, Greb A, Kunkel LM et al. (1991) In utero fetal muscle biopsy for the diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 165:728–732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (1991) Newsletter No. 5Google Scholar
  43. Farmer DL (1988) Fetal surgery: a brief review. Pediatr Radiol 28:407–413Google Scholar
  44. Faxelius G, Hagenvik K, Lagercrantz H, Lundell B, Ivestedt L (1983) Catecholamine surge and lung function after delivery. Arch Dis Child 58:262–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fearne J, Bryan E, Elliman A (1985) Enamel defects in deciduous dentition of low birth weight infants. Presented to the Paediatric Research Societies in Europe, Munich, 1985Google Scholar
  46. Field DJ, Milner AD, Hopkin IE (1985) Manipulation of ventilator settings to prevent active expiration against positive pressure ventilation. Arch Dis Child 60:1036–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Field DJ, Milner AD, Hopkin IE, Madeley RJ (1987) Changing patterns in neonatal respiratory disease. Paediatr Pulmonol 3:231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Finnell RH, Chernoff GF (1984) Genetic background: the elusive component in the fetal hydantoid syndrome. Am J Med Genet 19:459–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Firth HV, Boyd PA, Chamberlain P, MacKenzie IZ, Lindenbaum RH, Huson SM (1991) Severe limb abnormalities after chorionic villus sampling at 56–66 days gestation. Lancet 337:762–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fischer GW, Hunter KW, Wilson SR, Mease AD (1980) Diminished bacterial defences with intralipid. Lancet II: 819–820Google Scholar
  51. Florentino-Pineda I, Ezhuthachan SG, Sineni LG, Kumar SP (1994) Subgaleal haemorrhage in the newborn infant associated with silcone elastomer vacuum extractor. J Perinatol 14:95–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Fok TF, Ha MH, Leung KW, Wong W (1986) Sciatic nerve palsy complicating umbilical arterial catheterization. Eur J Pediatr 145:308–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fox WW, Spiler AR, Musci M (1984) Tracheal secretion impaction during hyperventilation for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate. Pediatric Research 18:323ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Frank L, Sosenko IRS (1987) Prenatal development of lung antioxidant systems in four species. J Pediatr 110: 106–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Frank L, Sosenko IRS (1991) Failure of premature rabbits to increase antioxidant enzymes during hyperoxic exposure: increases susceptibility to pulmonary oxygen toxicity compared with term rabbits. Pediatr Res 29:292–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Freeman J, Goldman DA, Smith NE, Sidebottom DG, Epstein MF, Platt R (1990) Association of intravenous lipid emulsions and coagulase negative staphylococcal bacteremia in neonatal intensive care units. N Engl J Med 323: 301–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Frewin R, Chisholm M (1998) Anticoagulation of women with prosthetic heart valves during pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 105:683–686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Friedman WF, Fitzpatrick KM (1980) Effects of prostoglandins, thromboxanes and inhibitors of their synthesis on renal and gastrointestinal function in the newborn period. Semin Perinatol 4:143–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Froster-Iskenius UG, Baird PA (1989) Limb reduction defects in over one million consecutive live births. Teratology 39:127–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Galjaard H (1976) European experience with prenatal diagnosis of congenital disease: a survey of 6121 cases. Cytogenet Cell Genet 16:453–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gason B, Drazon JM, Loscalzo J, Stamler JS (1994) The biology of nitrogen oxides in the airways. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 149:538–551Google Scholar
  62. Gersony WM, Peckham GJ, Ellison RC, Miettinen OS, Nadas AS (1983) Effects of indomethacin in premature infants with patent ductus arteriosus. Results of a national collaborative study. J Pediatr 102:895–906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ghanooni M, Mattison DR, Zhang YP, Macina OT, Rosenkranz JS, Glopman G (1997) Structural determinants associated with risk of human developmental toxicity. Am J Abstet Gynecol 176:799–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gilbert WM, Nesbitt TS, Danielsen B (1999) Associated factors in 1611 cases of branchial plexus injury. Obstet Gynecol 93: 536–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ginsberg JS, Barron WM (1994) Pregnancy and prosthetic heart valves. Lancet 344:1171–2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Glosten B ed (1991) Perinatal anaesthesia. Semin Perinatol 115 No 5Google Scholar
  67. Goezman BW, Stadalnik RC, Bogren HG, Blanknship WJ, Ikeda RM, Thayer J. (1975) Thrombotic complications of umbillical artery catheterization. A clinical and radiological study. Pediatrics 56:374–379Google Scholar
  68. Gould SJ, Howard S (1985) The histopathology of the larynx in the neonate following endotracheal intubation. J Pathol 146:301–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Govaert P, Vanhaesebrouck P, De Praeter C, Moens K, Leroy J (1992) Vacuum extraction, bone injury and neonatal subgaleal bleeding. Eur J Pediatr 151:532–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Graziani LJ, Gringlas M, Baumgart S (1997) Cerebrovascular complications and neurodevelopmental sequelae of neonatal ECMO. Clinics in Perinatology 24:655–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Greenough A, Morley CJ, Davis JA (1983) The interaction of the infant’s spontaneous respiration with ventilation. J Pediatr 103:769–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Greenough A, Wood S, Morley CJ, Davis JA (1984) Pulmonary interstitial emphysema. Arch Dis Child 59:1046–1051PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Greenough A, Morley CJ, Pool J (1986) Fighting the ventilator — are fast rates an effective alternative to paralysis? Early Hum Devel 13:189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Greenough A, Emery EF, Gamsu HR (1992) Dexamethasone and hypertension in preterm infants. Eur J Pediatr 152:134–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Greenspan JS, Fox WW, Rubenstein SD, Wolfson MR, Spinner SS, Shaffer TH (1997) Partial liquid ventilation in critically ill infants receiving extracorporeal life support. Philadelphia Ventilation Consortium. Pediatrics 99 E2PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gresens CJ, Holland PV (1998) Current risk of viral hepatitis from blood. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:443–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gresik MV (1996) Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. Pediatr Path Lab Med 16:137–142Google Scholar
  78. Gunn TR, Becroft DM (1984) Unexplained intracranial haemorrhage in utero: the battered fetus? Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 24:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gunn T, Reece ER, Metrakos K, Cole E (1984) Depressed T cells following neonatal steroid treatment. Pediatrics 67:61–67Google Scholar
  80. Gupta JM, Roberton NRC, Wigglesworth JS (1968) Umbilical artery catheterization in the newborn. Arch Dis Child 43:382–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Haddad IY, Ischiropoulous H, Holm BA, Beckman JS, Barker JR, Matalon S (1993) Mechanisms of peroxynitrite-induced injury to pulmonary surfactants. Am J Physiol 265 L 555–564Google Scholar
  82. Haldeman S, Fowler GW, Ashwal S, Schneide S (1983) Acute flaccid neonatal paraplegia. A case report. Neurology 33:93–95Google Scholar
  83. Hall JG, Paul RM, Wilson KN (1980) Maternal and fetal sequalae of anticoagulation during pregnancy. Am J Med 68:122–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hall SL (1992) Simultaneous occurrence of intracranial and subgaleal haemorrhages complicating vacuum extraction delivery. J Perinatal 12:185–187Google Scholar
  85. Hammerman C, Aramburo MJ (1988) Decreased lipid intake reduces morbidity in sick premature infants. J Pediatr 113:1083–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hanson F, Tennat F, Hune S, Brooklyser K (1992) Early amniocentesis: outcome risks and technical problems at less than or equal to 12.8 weeks. Am J Obstet Gynecol 166:1707–1711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hanson JW, Smith DW, Cohen MM (1976) Prominent lateral palatine ridges: developmental and clinical relevance. J Pediatr 89:54–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Harpin V, Rutter N (1982) Percutaneous alcohol absorption and skin necrosis in a preterm infant. Arch Dis Child 57:477–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Harrison MR, Adzick NS, Longaker MT et al. (1990) Successful repair in utero of a fetal diaphragmatic hernia after removal of herniated viscera from the left thorax. N Engl J Med 322:1582–1584PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Heffelfinger S, Hawkins EP, Nihill M, Langston C (1987) Pulmonary vascular changes associated with prolonged prostaglandin El treatment. Pediatr Pathol 7:165–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. HIFO Study Group (1983) Randomised study of high frequency oscillatory ventilation in infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr 122:606–619Google Scholar
  92. Hill RM, Verniaud WM, Horning MG, McCulley LB, Morgan NF (1974) Infants exposed in utero to antiepileptic drugs. Am J Dis Child 127:645–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Holcomb GW, Templeton JM (1989) Iatrogenic perforation of the bronchus intermedius in a 1100g neonate. J Pediatr Surg 24:1132–1134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Holden KR, Titus MO, Van Tassel P (1999) Cranial magnetic resonance imaging examination of normal term neonates: a pilot study. J Child Neurol 14: 708–710PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hufnagle KG, Khan SN, Penn D, Cacciarelli A, Williams P (1982) Renal calcifications: a complication of long term frusemide therapy in preterm infants. Pediatrics 70:360–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Ignarro LJ, Buga GM, Wood KS, Byrns RE, Chaudhuri G (1987) Endothelin-derived relaxing factor produced and released from artery and vein is nitric oxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci 84: 9265–9269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Jackson L and the USNICHD Collaborative CVS Study Group (1990) Transcervical and transabdominal chorionic villus sampling are comparably safe procedures for first trimester prenatal diagnosis: preliminary analysis (abstract). Am J Hum Genet 4 (suppl):A278Google Scholar
  98. Jackson LG, Wapner RJ (1987) Risk of chorion villus sampling. Baillière’s Clin Obstet Gynaecol 1:513–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Jackson LG, Zachary JM, Fowler SE et al. (1992) A randomized comparison of transcervical and transabdominal chorionic-villus sampling. The US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Chorionic-Villus Sampling and Amniocentesis Study Group. N Engl J Med 327:594–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Johnson L, Bowen FW, Abbasi S et al. (1985) Relationship of prolonged pharmacologic serum levels of vitamin E to incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants with birth weight 1500 grams or less. Pediatrics 75:619–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Junker P, Egeblad M, Nielson O, Kamper J (1976) Case report. Umbilical vein catheterizatin and portal hypertension. Acta Paediatr Scand 65:499–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kao LC, Warburton D, Sargeant CW, Platzker ACG, Keens TG (1983) Furosemide acutely decreases airway resistance in chronic bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr 103:624–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kaplan B, Rabinerson D, Averch OM, Carmi N, Steinberg DM, Merlos P (1998) Fracture of the clavicle in the newborn following normal labor and delivery. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 63: 15–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kempley ST, Gamsu HR (1992) Randomized trial of umbilical arterial catheter position: Doppler ultrasound findings. Arch Dis Child 67:855–859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kisnella JP, Abman SH (1993) Inhalational nitric oxide therapy for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pediatrics 91:997–998Google Scholar
  106. Kitterman JA, Phibbs RH, Tooley WH (1970) Catheterization of umbilical vessels in newborn infants. Pediatr Clin North Am 17:895–912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Klein MD, Andrews AF, Wesley JR et al. (1985) Venovenous perfusion in ECMO for newborn respiratory insufficiency Ann Surg 201:520–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Kooy NW, Royall JA, Ye YZ, Kelly DR, Beckman JS (1995) Evidence for in vivo peroxynitrite production in human acute lung injury. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 151:1250–1254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Koren G, Barzilay Z, Greenwald M (1986) Tenfold errors in administration of drug doses: a neglected iatrogenic disease in pediatrics. Pediatrics 77:848–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kuliev A, Jackson L, Forster U et al. (1996) Fetus-placenta-newborn: chorionic villus sampling safety: report of WHO/EURO meeting in association with the Seventh International Conference on Early Prenatal Diagnosis of Genetic Diseases, Tel-Aviv, Isreal May 21, 1994. Am J Obstet Gynecol 174:807–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Kuliev AM, Modell B, Jackson L et al. (1993) Risk evaluation of CVS. Prenat Diagn 13:197–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kuller J, Golbus MS (1992) Fetal therapy. In: Brock D, Rodeck CH, Ferguson-Smith M (eds) Prenatal Diagnosis and Screening. (Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, pp 703–717Google Scholar
  113. Kumar SP, Belik J (1984) Chylothorax — a complication of chest tube placement in a neonate. Crit Care Med 12: 411–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lammer EJ, Chen DT, Hoar RM et al. (1985) Retinoic acid embryopthy. N Engl J Med 313:837–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Lamb MP (1975) Gangrene of a fetal limb due to amniocentesis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 82:829–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Larroche JC (1970) Umbilical catheterization: its complications. Biol Neonate 16:101–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Lauridsen UB, Enk B, Gammeltoft A (1989) Oesophageal varcies as a late complication to neonatal umbilical vein catheterization. Acta Paedatr Scand 67:633–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Leck IM, Miller ELM (1962) Incidence of malformations since the introduction of thalidomide. Lancet II: 16–20Google Scholar
  119. Lee SK, Tanswell AK (1989) Pulmonary vascular air embolism in the newborn. Arch Dis Child 64:507–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lenz W (1962) Thalidomide and congenital abnormalities. Lancet 1:45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Levine MG, Holroyde J, Woods JR, Siddiqi TA, Scott M, Miodovnik M (1984) Birth trauma: incidence and predisposing factors. Obstet Gynecol 63:792–795PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Liu H, Chen J-C, Holinger LD, Gonzalez-Crussi F (1995) Histopathologic fundamentals of acquired laryngeal stenosis. Ped Pathol Lab Med 15: 655–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Low L, Ratcliffe W, Alexander W (1978) Intrauterine hypothyroidism due to antithyroid-drug therapy for thyrotoxiosis during pregnancy. Lancet ii:370–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Lower CA, Tuma RF, Sivieri EM, Schaffer TM (1979) Liquid ventilation: cardiovascular adjustments with secondary hyperlactaemia and acidosis. J Appl Physiol 47:1051–1056Google Scholar
  125. Lynch TP, Coran AG, Cohen SR, Lee FA (1974) Traumatic esophageal pseudodiverticula in the newborn. J Pediatr Surg 9:675–680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Macpherson TA, Shen-Schwarz S, Valdes-Dapena M (1988) Prevention and reduction of iatrogenic disorders in the newborn. In: Guthrie R (ed.) Clinics in critical care medicine: recent advances in neonatal intensive care. New York: Churchill Livingstone, pp 271–312Google Scholar
  127. Madansky DL, Lawson EE, Chernick V, Taeusch HW (1979) Pneumothorax and other forms of pulmonary air leak in newborns. Am Rev Resp Dis 120:729–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Mammel MC, Boros SJ (1987) Airway damage and mechanical ventilation. Pediatr Pulmonol 3:443–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Mann NP (1980) Gluteal skin necrosis after umbilical artery catheterization. Arch Dis Child 14:815–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Marinelli PV, Ortiz A, Alden ER (1981) Acquired eventration of the diaphragm: a complication of chest tube placement in neonatal pneumothorax. Pediatrics 67:552–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Marsh JL, King W, Barratt C, Fonkalsrud (1975) Serious complications after umbilical artery catheterization for neonatal monitoring. Arch Surg 110: 1203–1208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Matalon S, De Marco V, Haddad IY et al. Cassin S (1996) inhaled nitric oxide injures the pulmonary surfactant system of lambs in vivo. Am J Physiol 270:2730–280Google Scholar
  133. Maxwell DJ, Johnson P, Hurley P, Neales K, Allan L, Knott P (1991) Fetal blood sampling and pregnancy loss in relation to indication. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 98:892–897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Mazzaferri EL (1997) Evaluation and management of common thyroid disorders in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 176:507–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. McCann EM, Lewis K, Denning DD, Donovan MJ, Brady JP (1985) Controlled trial of frusemide thereapy in infants with chronic lung disease. J. Pediatr 106:957–962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Meadow SR (1968) Anticonvulsant drugs and congenital abnormalities. Lancet 2:1296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Medical Research Council (MRC) (1978) An assessment of the hazards of amniocentesis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 85:1–41 (suppl 2)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Medical Research Council Working Part on the Evaluation of Chorionic Villus Sampling (1991) Medical Research Council European trial of chorion villus sampling and amniocentesis. Lancet 337:1491–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Merritt CRB, Kremkau FW, Hobbins JC (1992) Diagnostic ultrasound: bioeffects and safety. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2:366–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Miller CL (1995) Nitric oxide therapy for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Neonat Netw 14:9–15Google Scholar
  141. Milligan DWA, Issler H, Massam M, Reynolds EOR (1984) Treatment of neonatal pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture. Lancet i: 1010–1011Google Scholar
  142. Milner AD, Hoskyns EW, Hopkin IE (1992) The effects of midtrimester amniocentesis on lung function in the neonatal period. Eur J Pediatr 151:458–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Milner AD. Saunders RA, Hopkin IE (1978) Effects of delivery by Caesarian section on lung mechanics and lung volume on human neonates. Arch Dis Child 53:545–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Milunsky A, Graef JW, Gaynor MF (1968) Methotrexate-induced congenital malformations with a review of the literature. J Pediatr 72:790–795PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Moessinger AC, Driscoll JM, Wigger HJ (1978) High incidence of lung perforation by chest tube in neonatal pneumothorax. J Pediatr 92:635–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Monson RR, Rosenberg L, Hartz SC, Shapiro S, Heinonen OP, Slone D (1973) Diphenylhydantoin and selected congenital malformations. N Engl J Med 289:1049–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Mokrohisky ST, Levine RL, Blumhagen JD, Wesenberg RL, Simmons MA (1978) Low positioning of umbilical artery catheter increases associated complications in newborn infants. N Engl J Med 299:561–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Najak ZD, Harris EM, Lazzara A, Pruitt AW (1983) Pulmonary effects of furosemide in preterm infants with lung disease. J Pediatr 102:758–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Nash G, Blennerhassett J-B, Pontoppidan H (1967) Pulmonary lesions associated with oxygen therapy and artificial ventilation. N Eng J Med 276:368–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Neilson I, Gosden C (1991) First trimester prenatal diagnosis: chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis? Br J Obstet Gynaecol 98:849–852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Nelson KB (1999) The neurologically impaired child and alleged malpractice at birth. Neurol Clinics 17:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Newton ER, Schroeder BC, Knape KG, Bennett BL (1995) Epidural analgesia and uterine function. Obstet Gynecol 85:749–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Ng PC, Thomson MA, Dear PRF (1990) Dexamethasone and infection in preterm babies: a controlled study. Arch Dis Child 65:54–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Ng PC, Brownlee KG, Dear PRF (1991) Gastroduodenal perforation in preterm babies treated with dexamethasone for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Arch Dis Child 66: 1164–1166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. NICHD (1976) National Registry for Amniocentesis Study Group 1976. Midtrimester amniocentesis for prenatal diagnosis -safety and accuracy. JAMA 236:1471–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Nicolaides K (1988) Cordocentesis. Clin Obstet Gynecol 31:123–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Nicolini U, Rodeck CH (1992) Fetal blood and tissue sampling. In: Brock D, Rodeck CH, Ferguson Smith M (eds) Prenatal diagnosis and screening. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, p. 47Google Scholar
  158. Nicolini U, Nicolaidis P, Fisk NM, Tannirandorn Y, Rodeck CH (1990) Fetal blood sampling from the intraheptatic vein: an analysis of safety and clinical experience with 214 procedures. Obstet Gynecol 76:47–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Northway WH, Rosan RC, Porter DY (1967) Pulmonary disease following respiratory therapy of hyaline membrane disease: bronchopulmonary dysplasia. N Eng J Med 276:3357–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. O’Brien PC, Noller KL, Robboy SJ et al (1979). Vaginal epithelial changes in young women enrolled in the National Cooperation Diethylstilbestrol Adenosis (DESAD) project. Obstet Gyneol 53:300–308Google Scholar
  161. Oh W, Stern L (1977) Diseases of the respiratory system. In: Behrman RE (ed.) Neonatal and perinatal medicine: diseases of the fetus and infant. St Louis: CV Mosby, p. 558Google Scholar
  162. Omu AE, Al Quattan F, Al Ashkanane L (1995) Shoulder dystocia: a continuing obstetric challenge. J Obstet Gynaecol 15:373–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. O’Neill EA, Chwals WH, O’Shea MD, Turner CS (1992) Dexamethasone treatment during ventilator dependency: possible life threatening gastrointestinal complications. Arch Dis Child 67:10–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. O’Neill JA (1984) Experience with iatrogenic laryngeal and tracheal stenoses. J Pediatr Surg 19:235–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Oppenheimer SJ, Snodgrass GJAI (1980) Neonatal rickets. Histopathology and quantitative bone changes. Arch Dis Child 55:945–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Orlandi F, Damiani G, Jakil C, Lauricella S, Bertolino O, Maggio A (1990) The risks of early ordocentesis (12–21 weeks): analysis of 500 procedures. Prenat Diagn 10:425–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. OSIRIS Collaborative Group (1992) Early versus delayed administration of a synthetic surfactant: the judgement of OSIRIS. Lancet 340:1363–1369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Pape KE, Armstrong DL, Fitzhardinge PM (1976) Central nervous system pathology associated with mask ventilation in the very low birth weight infant: a new aetiology for intrac-erebellar haemorrhages. Paediatrics 58:473–483Google Scholar
  169. Pandya NA, Jani BR (2000) Post axial limb defects with maternal sodium valproate exposure. Clin Dysmorphol 9:147–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Peden VH, Witzleben CL, Skelton MA (1971) Total parental nutrition. J Pediatr 78:180–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Pereira GR, Fox WW, Stanley CA, Baker L, Schwartz JG (1980) Decreased oxygenation and hyperlipemia during intravenous fat infusions in premature infants. Pediatrics 66:26–30Google Scholar
  172. Pertrikovsky BM, Schneider E, Smith-Levitin M, Gross B (1998) Cephalhaematoma and caput succedaneum: Do they always occur in labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 179:906–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Phelps DL, Lachman RS, Leake RD, Oh W (1972) The radiologic localization of the major aortic tributaries in the newborn infant. J Pediatr 81:336–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Powell H, Swarner O, Gluck L, Lampert P (1973) Hexchlorophene myelinopathy in premature infants. J Pediatr 82:976–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Pratt PC, Vollmer RT, Shelburne JD, Crapo JD (1979) Pulmonary morphology in a multihospital collaborative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation project. Am J Pathol 95:191 – 208Google Scholar
  176. Pratti D, Capelli C, Rebulla P et al. (1998) The current risk of retroviral infections transmitted by transfusion in patients who have undergone multiple transfusions. Cooleycare Cooperative Group. Arch Int Med 158:1566–1569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Quak JME, Szatmari A, van den Anker JN (1993) Cardiac tamponade in a preterm neonate secondary to a chest tube. Acta Paediatr 82:490–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Raju TNK, Langenberg P (1993) Pulmonary haemorrhage and exogenous surfactant replacement therapy: a meta-analysis. J Pediatr 123:603–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Raman-Wilms L, Tseng AL, Wighardt S, Einarson TRm, Koren G (1995) Fetal genital effects of first trimester sex hormone exposure: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 85:141–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Rehder H (1978) Fetal limb deformities due to amniotic constrictions (a possible consequence of preceding amniocentesis). Pathol Res Pract 162:316–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Rennie JM, Baker B, Lucas A (1989) Does dexamethasone suppress the ACTH response in preterm babies? Arch Dis Child 64:612–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Rey C, Marache P, Watel A, Francart C (1987) Iatrogenic false aneurysm of the brachial artery in an infant. Eur J pediatr 146:438–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Reynolds EOR, Taghizadek A (1974) Improved prognosis of infants mechanically ventilated for hyaline membrane disease. Arch Dis Child 49:505–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Rhoads GG, Jackson LG, Schlesselman SE et al. (1989) The safety and efficacy of chorionic villus sampling for early prenatal diagnosis of cytogeneti abnormalities. N Engl J Med 320:609–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Rizvi ZB, Aniol HS, Myers TFm, Zeller WP, Fisher SG, Anderson CL (1992) Effects of dexamethasone on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in preterm infants. J Pediatr 120:961–965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Roberton NRC (1976) Treatment of cystic ventilator lung disease. Proc Roy Soc Med 69:344–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Robinson CM, Cox MA (1986) The incidence of renal calcification in low birth weight (LBW) infants on lasix for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Pediatr Res 20:359AGoogle Scholar
  188. Rodeck CH, Fisk NM, Fraser DI, Nicolini U (1988) Long-term in-utero drainage of fetal hydrothorax. New Engl J Med 319:1135–1138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Roper EC, Konje JC, De Chazal RC, Duckett DP, Oppenheimer CA, Taylor DJ (1999) Genetic amniocentesis: gestation — specific pregnancy outcome and comparison of outcome following early and traditional amniocentesis. Prenatal Diagnosis 19:803–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Rosa FW (1983). Teratogenecitiy of isoretinoin. Lancet ii:513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Ross SA, McCaffery PJ, Drager UC, De Luga LM (2000) Retinoids in embryonal development. Physiol Reviews 80: 1021–1054Google Scholar
  192. Rubin PC ed 1995. Prescribing in pregnancy, 2nd edn. London: PBJ PublishingGoogle Scholar
  193. Rubin PC (1998) Drug treatment during pregnancy. Br Med J 317:1503–1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Rubin PC, Craig GF, Gavin K, Sumner D (1986). Prospective survey of use of therapeutic drugs, alcohol and cigarettes during pregnancy. Br Med J 292:81–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Rush RW, Keirse MJNC, Howat P, Baum JD, Anderson AB, Turnbull AC (1976) Contribution of preterm delivery to perinatal mortality. Br Med J ii:965–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Rush RW, Davey DA, Segall ML (1978) The effect of preterm delivery on perinatal mortality. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 85:806–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Rushton DI (1981) Examination of products of conception from previable human pregnancies. J Clin Pathol 34:819–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Rybak LP (1982) Pathophysiology of frusemide ototoxicity. J Otolaryng 11:127–135Google Scholar
  199. Salamy A, Eldrege L, Tooley WH (1989) Neonatal status and hearing loss in high-risk infants. J Pediatr 114:847–852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Sargent JW, Serffi RJ (1970) Properties of perfluoronated liquids. Fed Proc 29:1699–1703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Saunders RA, Milner AD (1978) Pulmonary pressure/volume relationships during the last phase of delivery and the first postnatal breaths in human subjects. J Pediatr 93:667–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Schumacher RE, Barks JDE, Johnston MV et al. (1988) Right-sided brain lesions in infants following extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pediatrics 82:155–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Segal S, Chu J (1963) Neonatal respiratory adaptation. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare. National Institutes of Health: Bethesda 184–188Google Scholar
  204. Shuman RM, Leech RW, Alvord EC (1974) Neurotoxicity of hexa-chlorophene in the human: 1. A clinicopathologic study of 248 children. Pediatrics 54:689–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Simmons MA, Levine RV, Lubchenco LO, Guggenheim MA (1978) Warning: serious sequelae of temporal arterial catheterization. J Pediatr 92:284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Simpson NE, Dallaire L, Miller JR et al (1976) Prenatal diagnosis of genetic disease in Canada: report of a collaborative study. Canadian Medical Association Journal 115:739–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Sivieri EM, Moskoqitz GD, Shaffer TF (1981) Instrumentation for measurement of cardiac output by the direct Fick method during liquid breathing. Biomed Res 8:75–83Google Scholar
  208. Sjoberg I, Erichs K, Bjerre I (1988) Cause and effect of obstetric (neonatal) brachial plexus palsy. Acta Paediatr Scand 77:357–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Smidt-Jensen S, Permin M, Philip J (1991) Sampling success and risk by transabdominal chorionic villus sampling, transcervical chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis: a randomised study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1:86:90Google Scholar
  210. Sosenko RS, Rodriquez-Pierce M, Bancalari E (1993) Effect of early initiation of intravenous lipid administration on the incidence and severity of chroni lung disease in premature infants. J Pediatr 123:975–982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Speidel BD, Meadow SR (1972) Maternal epilepsy and abnormalities of the fetus and newborn. Lancet 2:839–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Steele RW, Metz JR, Bass JW, Du Bois JJ (1971) Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in the newborn. Radiology 98:629–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Stephens TD, Bundle CJ, Fillmore BJ (2000) Mechanism of action in thalidomide teratogenesis. Biochem Pharmacol 59:1489–1499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Stevenson D, Walther F, Long W et al. (1992) Controlled trial of a single dose of synthetic surfactant at birth in premature infants weighing 500–699 grams. J Pediatr 120 (suppl): 3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Strickler SM, Dansky LV, Miller M, Seui M-H, Andermann E, Spielberg SP (1985) Genetic predisposition to phenytoin-induced birth defects. Lancet 2:746–749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Tabor A, Philip PJ, Madsen M (1986) Randomised controlled trial of genetic amniocentesis in 4606 low risk women. Lancet i:1287–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Taghizadek A, Reynolds EOR (1976) Pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia following hyaline membrane dysplasia. Am J Pathol 82:241–254Google Scholar
  218. Tamir S, de Rojas-Walker T, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR (1996) DNA damage and genotoxicity by nitric oxide. Methods Enzymol 206:230–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Tarnow-Mordi WO, Wilkinson AR (1985) Inspiratory: expiratory ratio and pulmonary interstitial emphysema. Arch Dis Child 59:1046–1051Google Scholar
  220. Therkensen AJ, Rehder H (1981) Intestinal atresia caused by second trimester amniocentesis. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 88:559–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Thiersch JB (1952) Therapeutic abortions with folic acid antagonist, 4-aminopterogluitamic acid (4-amino PGA) administered by the oral route. Am J Obst Gynecol 63:1298–1304Google Scholar
  222. Thompson PJ, Greenough A, Nicolaides KH (1992) Lung volume measured by functional residual capacity in infants following first trimester amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 99:479–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Thorp JA, HU DH, Albin RM et al. (1993) The effect of intrapartum epidural analgesia on multiparous labour: a randomised, controlled, prospective trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 169:851–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Tiboni GM, Iammarrone E, Piccirill G, Liberati M, Bellati U (1998) Aspirin pretreatment potentiates hyperthermia-induced teratogenesis in the mouse. Am J Obstet Gynecol 178:270–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Tongsong T, Wanapirak C, Kunavikatikul C, Sirirchotiyakul S, Piyamongkol W, Chanprapaph P (2000) Cardiocentesis at 16–24 weeks of gestation: experience of 1320 cases. Prenatal Diagnosis 20:224–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Tooley WH (1979) Epidemiology of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr 95:851–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Towers CV, Carr MH, Padilla G, Asrat T (1998) Potential consequences of widespread antepartum use of ampicillin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 179:879–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Towner D, Castro MA, Eby-Wilkens E, Gilbert WM (1999) Effect of mode of delivery in nulliparous women on neonatal intracranial injury. N Eng J Med 341:1709–1714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Ueda K, Saito A, Nakano H, Aoshima M, Uokota M, Murauka R, Iwaya T (1980) Cortical hyperostosis following long term administration of prostaglandin E in infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease. J Pediatr 97:834–836Google Scholar
  230. UK Collaborative ECNMO Trial Group (1996) UK collaborative randomised trial of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Lancet 348:75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Vailas GN, Brouillette RT, Scott JP, Shkolnik A, Conway J, Wiringa K (1986) Neonatal aortic thrombosis: recent experience. J Pediatr 109:101–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. van der Vliet A, O’Neill CA, Halliwell B, Cross CE, Kaur H (1994) Aromatic hydroxylation and nitration of phenylalanine and tyrosine by peroxynitrite. Evidence for hydroxyl radical production from peroxynitrite. FEBS Lett 339:89–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. van Houten J, Long W, Mullet M (1992) Pulmonary haemorrhage in premature infants after treatment with synthetic surfactant. An autopsy evaluation. J Pediatr 120 (suppl): 40–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. van Lierde, Cornelis A, Devlieger H, Moerman P, Lauweryns J, Eggermont E (1991) Different patterns of pulmonary sequelae after hyaline membrane disease: heterogenicity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Biol Neonate 60:152–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Venkataraman PS, Tsang RC, Chen IW, Sperling MA (1987) Pathogenesis of early neonatal hypocalcaemia: studies of serum calcitonin, gastrin, plasma glucagon. J Pediatr 110:599–603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Vitale N, De Feo M, de Santo LS, Pollice A, Tedesco N, Cotnifo M (1999) Dose-dependent fetal complications of warfarin in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves. J Am Coll Cardiol 33:1637–1641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Vyas H, Field D, Milner AD (1986) Determinants of the first inspiratory volume and functional residual capacity at birth. Peadiatr Pulmonol 2:189–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Wade RV, Young SR (1989) Analysis of fetal loss after transcervical chorionic villus sampling: a review of 719 patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 161:513–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Walters DV, Olver RE (1978) The role of catecholamines in lung liquid absorption at birth. Pediatr Res 12:239–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Ward PM (1984) Pharmacology of tolazoline. Clin Perinatol 11:703–713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Weber TR, Kountzman B (1996) The effects of venous occlusion in cerebral blood flow characteristics during ECMO. J Ped Surg 31:1124–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Wellesley D, Moore I, Heard M, Keeton B (1998) Two cases of warfarin embryopathy: a re-emergence of this condition. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 105:805–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Werner JC, Sicard RE, Hansen TWR, Solomon E, Cowett RM, Oh W (1992) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with dexamethasone therapy for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr 120:286–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Wesstrom G, Finnstrom O, Stenport G (1979) Umbilical artery catheterisation in newborns. 1. Thrombosis in relation to catheter type and position. Acta Paediatr Scand 68: 575–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. WHO Consultation on First Trimester Fetal Diagnosis (1986) Risk evaluation in chorion villus sampling. Prenat Diagn 6:451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Wigglesworth JS (1998) Pathology of intrapartum and early neonatal death in the normally formed infant. In: Wigglesworth JS, Singer DS (eds) Textbook of fetal and perinatal pathology 2nd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 251–268Google Scholar
  247. Wigglesworth JS, Husemeyer RP (1977) Intracranial birth trauma in vaginal breech delivery: the continued importance of injury to the occipital bone. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 84:684–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Wilkinson A, Baum JD, Keeling JW (1981) Gluteal skin necrosis after umbilical arterial catheterization. Arch Dis Child 56:237–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Wilkinson C, Mcllwaine G, Boulton-Jones C, Cole S (1998) Is a rising caesarian section rate inevitable. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 105:45–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Williams AF, Jones M (1992) Dexemethasone increases plasma amino acid concentrations in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Arch Dis Child 67:5–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Yates PO (1959) Birth trauma to the vertebral arteries. Arch Dis Child 34:436–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Yu VYH (1992) Parenteral nutrition in the newborn. In: Roberton NRC (ed.) Textbook of neonatology, 2nd edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, pp 289–301Google Scholar
  253. Zelson C, Lee SJ, Pearl M (1974) The incidence of skull fractures underlying cephalhaematomas in newborn infants. J Pediatr 85:371–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Zerella JT, Trump DS (1987) Surgical management of neonatal interstitial emphysema. J Pediatr Surg 22:34–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan G. Howatson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations