The Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome

  • T. Vincent
  • C. Mackworth-Young


The emergence of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) over the last thirty-odd years has been one of the most striking developments in clinical autoimmunity. The identification of a pure or “primary” variant of the syndrome has been central to this story, not least in enabling us to establish the place of this remarkable condition in the wide spectrum of autoimmune disease.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Lupus Anticoagulant Anticardiolipin Antibody Recurrent Miscarriage Hughes Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Moore JE, Mohr CF. Biologically false positive serologic tests for syphilis, type incidence and cause. JAMA 1952; 150: 467–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feinstein DI, Rapaport SI. Acquired inhibitors of blood coagulation. [Review] [95 refs]. Prog Hemost Thromb 1972; 1: 75–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bowie WEJ, Thompson JH, Pascuzzi CA, Owen CA. Thrombosis in SLE despite circulation anticoagulant. J Clin Invest 1963; 62: 413–430.Google Scholar
  4. Margolius A, Jackson DP, Ratnoff OD. Circulation anticoagulants: a study of 40 cases and a review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1961; 40: 145–202.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nilsson IM, Astedt B, Hedner U, Berezin D. Intrauterine death and circulating anticoagulant (“antithromboplastin”). Acta Med Scand 1975; 197 (3): 153–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Firkin BG, Howard MA, Radford N. Possible relationship between lupus inhibitor and recurrent abortion in young women [letter]. Lancet 1980; 2 (8190): 366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carreras LO, Defreyn G, Machin SJ, Vermylen J, Deman R, Spitz B et al. Arterial thrombosis, intrauterine death and “lupus” anticoagulant: detection of immunoglobulin interfering with prostacyclin formation. Lancet 1981; 1 (8214): 244–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yin ET, Gaston LW. Purification and kinetic studies on a circulating anticoagulant in a suspected case of lupus erythematosus. Thromb Diath Haemorrhag 1965; 14: 88–115.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Laurell AB, Nilsson IM. Hypergammaglobulinaemia, circulating anticoagulant and biologic false positive Wassermann reaction. J Lab Clin Med 1957; 49: 694–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harris EN, Gharavi AE, Boey ML, Patel BM, Mackworth-Young CG, Loizou S et al. Anticardiolipin antibodies: detection by radioimmunoassay and association with thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet 1983; 2 (8361): 1211–1214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Violi F, Valesini G, Ferro D, Tincani A, Balestrieri G, Balsano F. Anticoagulant activity of anticardiolipin antibodies. Thromb Res 1986; 44 (4): 543–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boey ML, Colaco CB, Gharavi AE, Elkon KB, Loizou S, Hughes GR. Thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: striking association with the presence of circulating lupus anticoagulant. Br Med J 1983; 287 (6398): 1021–1023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hughes GR. Thrombosis, abortion, cerebral disease, and the lupus anticoagulant. Br Med J 1983; 287: 1088–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hughes GR. The anticardiolipin syndrome [editorial]. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1985; 3: 285–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Harris EN, Baguley E, Asherson RA, Hughes GRV. Clinical and serological features of the “antiphospholipid syndrome” (APS). Br J Rheumatol 1987; 26: 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Asherson RA. A “primary” antiphospholipid syndrome? J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 1742–1746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Asherson RA, Baguley E, Pal C, Hughes GR. Antiphospholipid syndrome: five year follow up. Ann Rheum Dis 1991; 50: 805–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mujic F, Cuadrado MJ, Lloyd M, Khamashta MA, Page G, Hughes GR. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome evolving into systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 1589–1592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Andrews PA, Frampton G, Cameron JS. Antiphospholipid syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus [letter; comment]. Lancet 1993; 342: 988–989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vianna JL, Khamashta MA, Ordi-Ros J, Font J, Cervera R, Lopez-Soto A et al. Comparison of the primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome: a European Multicenter Study of 114 patients [see comments]. Am J Med 1994; 96: 3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Asherson RA, Khamashta MA, Ordi-Ros J, Derksen RH, Machin SJ, Barquinero J et al. The “primary” antiphospholipid syndrome: major clinical and serological features. Medicine 1989; 68: 366–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Font J, Lopez-Soto A, Cervera R, Balasch J, Pallares L, Navarro M et al. The “primary” antiphospholipid syndrome: antiphospholipid antibody pattern and clinical features of a series of 23 patients. Autoimmunity 1991; 9: 69–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Loizou CG, Mackworth-Young C, Cofiner C, Walport MJ. Heterogeneity of binding reactivity to different phospholipids of antibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and with syphilis. Clin Exp Immunol 1990; 80: 171–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Galli M, Comfurius P, Maassen C, Hemker HC, de Baets MH, van Breda-Vriesman PJ et al. Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) directed not to cardiolipin but to a plasma protein cofactor [see comments]. Lancet 1990; 335: 1544–1547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McNeil HP, Simpson RJ, Chesterman CN, Krilis SA. Anti-phospholipid antibodies are directed against a complex antigen that includes a lipid-binding inhibitor of coagulation: beta 2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 4120–4124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harris EN, Pierangeli S. Anticardiolipin antibodies: specificity and function. [Review] [58 refs]. Lupus 1994; 3: 217–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Matsuura E, Igarashi Y, Yasuda T, Triplett DA, Koike T. Anticardiolipin antibodies recognize beta 2-glycoprotein I structure altered by interacting with an oxygen modified solid phase surface. J Exp Med 1994; 179: 457–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Roubey RA, Eisenberg RA, Harper MF, Winfield JB. “Anticardiolipin” autoantibodies recognize beta 2-glycoprotein I in the absence of phospholipid. Importance of Ag density and bivalent binding. J Immunol 1995; 154: 954–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Arvieux J, Roussel B, Jacob MC, Colomb MG. Measurement of anti-phospholipid antibodies by ELISA using beta 2-glycoprotein I as an antigen. J Immunol Methods 1991; 143: 223–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Roubey RA. Immunology of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. [Review] [116 refs]. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 1444–1454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bajaj SP, Rapaport SI, Fierer DS, Herbst KD, Schwartz DB. A mechanism for the hypoprothrombinemia of the acquired hypoprothrombinemia-lupus anticoagulant syndrome. Blood 1983; 61: 684–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Edson JR, Vogt JM, Hasegawa DK. Abnormal prothrombin crossed-immunoelectrophoresis in patients with lupus inhibitors. Blood 1984; 64: 807–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fleck RA, Rapaport SI, Rao LV. Anti-prothrombin antibodies and the lupus anticoagulant. Blood 1988; 72: 512–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Arvieux J, Darnige L, Caron C, Reber G, Bensa JC, Colomb MG. Development of an ELISA for autoantibodies to prothrombin showing their prevalence in patients with lupus anticoagulants. Thromb Haemost 1995; 74: 1120–1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Godeau B, Piette JC, Fromont P, Intrator L, Schaeffer A, Bierling P. Specific antiplatelet glycoprotein autoantibodies are associated with the thrombocytopenia of primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Br J Haematol 1997; 98: 873–879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Panzer S, Gschwandtner ME, Hutter D, Spitzauer S, Pabinger I. Specificities of platelet autoantibodies in patients with lupus anticoagulants in primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Ann Hematol 1997; 74: 239–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kertesz Z, Yu BB, Steinkasserer A, Haupt H, Benham A, Sim RB. Characterization of binding of human beta 2-glycoprotein Ito cardiolipin. Biochem J 1995; 310: 315–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cabiedes J, Cabral AR, Alarcon-Segovia D. Clinical manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus associate more strongly with anti-beta 2-glycoprotein-I than with antiphospholipid antibodies. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 1899–1906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Najmey SS, Keil LB, Adib DY, DeBari VA. The association of antibodies to beta 2 glycoprotein I with the antiphospholipid syndrome: a meta-analysis. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1997; 27: 41–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cabral AR, Cabiedes J, Alarcon-Segovia D. Antibodies to phospholipid-free beta 2-glycoprotein-I in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 1894–1898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Day HM, Thiagarajan P, Ahn C, Reveille JD, Tinker KF, Arnett FC. Autoantibodies to beta 2-glycoprotein I in systemic lupus erythematosus and primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: clinical correlations in comparison with other antiphospholipid antibody tests. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 667–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Loizou S, Byron MA, Englert HJ, David J, Hughes GR, Walport MJ. Association of quantitative anticardiolipin antibody levels with fetal loss and time of loss in systemic lupus erythematosus. Quart J Med 1988; 68: 525–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Escalante A, Brey RL, Mitchell BD, Jr., Dreiner U. Accuracy of anticardiolipin antibodies in identifying a history of thrombosis among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Med 1995; 98: 559–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Viard JP, Amoura Z, Bach JF. Association of anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I antibodies with lupus-type circulating anticoagulant and thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus [see comments]. Am J Med 1992; 93: 181–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lopez-Soto A, Cervera R, Font J, Bove A, Reverter JC, Munoz FJ et al. Isotype distribution and clinical significance of antibodies to cardiolipin, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine in systemic lupus erythematosus: prospective analysis of a series of 92 patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1997; 15: 143–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Levine SR, Brey RL, Sawaya KL, Salowich-Palm L, Kokkinos J, Kostrzema B et al. Recurrent stroke and thrombo-occlusive events in the antiphospholipid syndrome. Ann Neurol 1995; 38: 119–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Vaarala O, Puurunen M, Manttari M, Manninen V, Aho K, Palosuo T. Antibodies to prothrombin imply a risk of myocardial infarction in middle-aged men. Thromb Haemost 1996; 75: 456–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Alarcon-Segovia D, Perez-Vazquez ME, Villa AR, Drenkard C, Cabiedes J. Preliminary classification criteria for the antiphospholipid syndrome within systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1992; 21: 275–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cabral AR, Amigo MC, Cabiedes J, Alarcon-Segovia D. The antiphospholipid/cofactor syndromes: a primary variant with antibodies to beta 2-glycoprotein-I but no antibodies detectable in standard antiphospholipid assays. Am J Med 1996; 101: 472–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Alarcon-Segovia D, Mestanza M, Cabiedes J, Cabral AR. The antiphospholipid/cofactor syndromes. II. A variant in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus with antibodies to /32-glycoprotein I but no antibodies detectable in standard antiphospholipid assays. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 1545–1551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Piette JC, Wechsler B, Francis C, Godeau P. Systemic lupus erythematosus and the antiphospholipid syndrome: reflections about the relevance of ARA criteria [editorial] [see comments]. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 1835–1837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Piette JC, Wechsler B, Frances C, Papo T, Godeau P. Exclusion criteria for primary antiphospholipid syndrome [letter]. J Rheumatol 1993; 20: 1802–1804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Johannsson EA, Niemi KM, Mustakillio KK. A peripheral vascular syndrome overlapping with SLE: recurrent venous thrombosis and hemorrhagic capillary proliferation with circulating anticoagulants and false-positive reactions for syphilis. Dermatologica 1977; 15: 257–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Alegre VA, Gastineau DA, Winkelmann RK. Skin lesions associated with circulating lupus anticoagulant. Br J Dermatol 1989; 120: 419–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Badui E, Solorio S, Martinez E, Bravo G, Enciso R, Barile L et al. The heart in the primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Arch Med Res 1995; 26: 115–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Coudray N, de Zuttere D, Bletry O, Piette JC, Wechsler B, Godeau P et al. M mode and Doppler echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular diastolic function in primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Br Heart J 1995; 74: 531–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hamsten A, Norberg R, Bjorkholm M, de Faire U, Holm G. Antibodies to cardiolipin in young survivors of myocardial infarction: an association with recurrent cardiovascular events. Lancet 1986; 1: 113–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    APASS. The Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Stroke Study Group. Clinical and laboratory findings in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and cerebral ischaemia. Stroke 1990; 21: 1268–1273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Montalban J, Codina A, Ordi J, Vilardell M, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. Antiphospholipid antibodies in cerebral ischemia. Stroke 1991; 22: 750–753.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brey RL, Hart RG, Sherman DG, Tegeler CH. Antiphospholipid antibodies and cerebral ischemia in young people. Neurology 1990; 40: 1190–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    APASS. The Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Stroke Study Group. Anticardiolipin antibodies are an independent risk factor for first ischemic stroke. Neurology 1993; 43: 2069–2073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Verrot D, San-Marco M, Dravet C, Genton P, Disdier P, Bolla G et al. Prevalence and signification of antinuclear and anticardiolipin antibodies in patients with epilepsy. Am J Med 1997; 103: 33–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Inzelberg R, Korczyn AD. Lupus anticoagulant and late onset seizures [see comments]. Acta Neurol Scand 1989; 79: 114–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sneddon IB. Cerebral vascular lesion in livedo reticularis. Br J Dermatol 1965; 77: 180–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kalashnikova LA, Nasonov EL, Kushekbaeva AE, Gracheva LA. Anticardiolipin antibodies in Sneddon’s syndrome. Neurology 1990; 40: 464–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Asherson RA, Harris NE, Gharavi AE, Hughes GR. Systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibodies, chorea, and oral contraceptives [letter]. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 1535–1536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lubbe WF, Walker EB. Chorea gravidarum associated with circulating lupus anticoagulant: successful outcome of pregnancy with prednisone and aspirin therapy. Case report. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1983; 90: 487–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Goldstein SR. Embryonic death in early pregnancy: a new look at the first trimester. Obstet Gynecol 1994; 84: 294–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Oshiro BT, Silver RM, Scott JR, Yu H, Branch DW. Antiphospholipid antibodies and fetal death. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 87: 489–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Silver RM, Porter TF, van Leeuween I, Jeng G, Scott JR, Branch DW. Anticardiolipin antibodies: clinical consequences of “low titers”. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 87: 494–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Aoki K, Hayashi Y, Hirao Y, Yagami Y. Specific antiphospholipid antibodies as a predictive variable in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. Am J Reprod Immunol 1993; 29: 82–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Derue G, Englert HJ, Harris EN et al. Foetal loss in systemic lupus: association with anticardiolipin antibodies. J Obstet Gynaecol 1985; 5: 207–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fanelli A, Bergamini C, Rapi S, Caldini A, Spinelli A, Buggiani A et al. Flow cytometric detection of circulating activated platelets in primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Correlation with thrombocytopenia and anticardiolipin antibodies. Lupus 1997; 6: 261–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Emmi L, Bergamini C, Spinelli A, Liotta F, Marchione T, Caldini A et al. Possible pathogenetic role of activated platelets in the primary antiphospholipid syndrome involving the central nervous system. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1997; 823: 188–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mackworth-Young CG, Loizou S, Walport MJ. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome: features of patients with raised anticardiolipin antibodies and no other disorder. Ann Rheum Dis 1989; 48: 362–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Alarcon-Segovia D, Sanchez-Guerrero J. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome [published erratum appears in J Rheumatol 1989 Jul;16(7):1014]. J Rheumatol 1989; 16: 482–488.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Asherson RA, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. The hepatic complications of the antiphospholipid antibodies [editorial]. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1991; 9: 341–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pomeroy C, Knodell RG, Swaim WR, Arneson P, Mahowald ML. Budd-Chiari syndrome in a patient with the lupus anticoagulant. Gastroenterology 1984; 86: 158–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mor F, Beigel Y, Inbal A, Goren M, Wysenbeek AJ. Hepatic infarction in a patient with the lupus anticoagulant. Arthritis Rheum 1989; 32: 491–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lee HJ, Park JW, Chang JC. Mesenteric and portal venous obstruction associated with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome [see comments]. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1997; 12: 822–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tatrai T, Kiss G, Sevcic K. Inferior vena cava thrombosis developing in primary antiphospholipid syndrome [Hungarian]. Dry Hetil 1996; 137: 135–137.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Asherson RA, George EN, Hughes GRV. Hypertension, renal artery stenosis and the “primary” antiphospholipid syndrome. J Rheumatol 1991; 18: 1413–1415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sonpal GM, Sharma A, Miller A. Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, renal infarction and hypertension. J Rheumatol 1993; 20: 1221–1223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Grottolo A, Ferrari V, Mariano M, Zambruni A, Tincani A, Del Bono R. Primary adrenal insufficiency, circulating lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies in a patient with multiple abortions and recurrent thrombotic episodes. Haematologica 1988; 73: 517–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Marie I, Levesque H, Heron F, Cailleux N, Borg JY, Courtois H. Acute adrenal failure secondary to bilateral infarction of the adrenal glands as the first manifestation of primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome [letter]. Ann Rheum Dis 1997; 56: 567–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Takeuchi S, Obayashi T, Toyama J. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome with acute myocardial infarction recanalised by PTCA. Heart 1998; 79: 96–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Nagai S, Horie Y, Akai T, Takeda S, Takaku A. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis associated with primary antiphospholipid syndrome–case report [Review] [23 refs]. Neurol Med Chir 1998; 38: 34–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sandoval J, Amigo MC, Barragan R, Izaguirre R, Reyes PA, Martinez-Guerra ML et al. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome presenting as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Treatment with thromboendarterectomy. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 772–775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Levine SR, Deegan MJ, Futrell N, Welch KM. Cerebrovascular and neurologic disease associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: 48 cases. Neurology 1990; 40: 1181–1189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Keller E, Sommer T, Lutterbey G, Schild HH. Coincident arterial and venous cerebral thrombosis in primary antiphospholipid syndrome [German]. Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 1996; 165: 300–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Khoo KB, Long FL, Tuck RR, Allen RJ, Tymms KE. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with the primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Resolution with local thrombolytic therapy. [Review] [14 refs]. Med J Aust 1995; 162: 30–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lockwood CJ, Reece EA, Romero R, Hobbins JC. Anti-phospholipid antibody and pregnancy wastage [letter]. Lancet 1986; 2: 742–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Cowchock S, Smith JB, Gocial B. Antibodies to phospholipids and nuclear antigens in patients with repeated abortions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1986; 155: 1002–1010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Unander AM, Norberg R, Hahn L, Arfors L. Anticardiolipin antibodies and complement in ninety-nine women with habitual abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987; 156: 114–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Petri M, Golbus M, Anderson R, Whiting OKQ, Corash L, Hellmann D. Antinuclear antibody, lupus anticoagulant, and anticardiolipin antibody in women with idiopathic habitual abortion. A controlled, prospective study of forty-four women. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 601–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Granger KA, Farquharson RG. Obstetric outcome in antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus 1997; 6: 509–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Vincent
  • C. Mackworth-Young

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations