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Watermarking of Digital Images — Current Techniques and Future Prospects

  • Roger J. Green
  • Samura Ali
Chapter
  • 123 Downloads

Abstract

Worldwide computer break-ins and unauthorized access to computer data are increasing. Securing the information stored in or communicated between personal computers has become an essential business practice as the number and applications of these machines increase. Conventionally, for example, the Data Encryption Standard (DES), although established some time ago, may be used to encrypt complete image data, but this can be quite time-consuming for, say, 640×480 pixel image files [1, 2].

This chapter reviews watermarking and encryption of images, and then describes ImgCrypt [3]. This provides secure image encryption and “wipe options” to prevent unauthorized access to one’s personal image collection. The ImgCrypt package uses the DES algorithm, together with pixel position transformation and neighbourhood encryption, to perform encryption and decryption functions.

Comparison may be made between this method and the conventional text-type method using DES. ImgCrypt encrypts the image data approximately 50 times faster than text-type methods. It is also a very secure encryption, and would not normally allow an intruder to get anywhere near to the image key. Message authentication is also applied here to verify that the contents of the image have not been altered and that the source is authentic.

Keywords

Watermark Image Image File Lower Spatial Frequency Message Authentication Code Lena Image 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. [1]
    Data Encryption Standard,FIPS Publication 46, National Bureau of Standards, US Department of Commerce, Washington DC, January 1977.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    DES Modes of Operation, FIPS Publication 81, National Bureau of Standards, US Department of Commerce, Washington DC, November 1981.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    http://cosimo.die.unifi.it/piva/Watermarking/watermark.html.
  4. [4]
  5. [5]
  6. [6]
  7. [7]
    http://www.generation.net/~pitas/sign.html.
  8. [8]
    http://ltswww.epfl.ch/~kutter/watermarking/JK PGS.html.
  9. [9]
    http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~fapp2/steganography/index.html.
  10. [10]
    S.M. Ali, Secure encoding of digital images, M.Sc. dissertation, Bradford University, UK, September 1998.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    W. Stallings, Data and Computer Communications, 5th edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ, 1996.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger J. Green
  • Samura Ali

There are no affiliations available

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