Despite rapid evolution in control hardware over past 50 years, the PID controller remains the workhorse in process industries. The proportional action (P mode) adjusts controller output according to the size of the error. The integral action (I mode) can eliminate the steady-state offset and the future trend is anticipated via the derivative action (D mode). These useful functions are sufficient for a large number of process applications and the transparency of the features leads to wide acceptance by the users. On the other hand, it can be shown that the internal model control (IMC) framework leads to PID controllers for virtually all models common in industrial practice (Morari and Zafiriou, 1989). Note that this includes systems with inverse responses and integrating (unstable) processes.
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