Advertisement

Principles of Neonatal Intensive Care

  • F. Beaufils
  • Y. Aujard
  • Y. Bompard

Abstract

The neonatal period extends from birth to the 27th day of postnatal age. This definition is important because during 4 weeks the newborn is in transition in all the aspects of his life. The suppression of placental circulation requires an acute adaptation of almost all the organs, particularly the cardiopulmonary system, kidneys, and liver. Profound adjustments are necessary for all the vital processes, such as carbohydrate metabolism, endocrine systems, neurological development, and coagulation. The newborn passes suddenly from a pathogen-free environment to an environment rich in a great variety of pathogens and is not always able to protect himself against these pathogens. Although very complicated, the adjustments are generally successful. But any of them may fail and raise important problems.

Keywords

Diaphragmatic Hernia Patent Ductus Arteriosus Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Positive Pressure Ventilation Diabetic Mother 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aperia A, Broberger O, Thodenius K, Zetterstrom R (1972) Renal response to an oral sodium load in newborn full-term infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 61: 670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aperia A, Broberger O, Thodenius K, Zetterstrom R (1974) Developmental study of the renal response to an oral salt load in preterm infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 63: 517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arcilla RA, Coll OHW, Lind J, Gessner IH (1966) Pulmonary arterial pressures of the newborn infants born with early clamping of the cord. Acta Paediatr Scand 35: 305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aschinberg LC, Goldsmith DI, Olbing H, Spitzer A, Edelmann CM Jr, Blaufox MD (1975) Neonatal changesGoogle Scholar
  5. Principles of Neonatal Intensive Care 1055 in renal blood flow distribution in puppies. Am J Physiol 228:1453Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Aujard Y, Beaufils F, Bourrillon A (1978) La persistance de la circulation foetale. Arch Fr Pediatr 35: 681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.
    Baylen BG, Meyer RA, Kaplan S, et al (1975) The critically ill premature infant with patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary disease-an echocardiographic assessment. J Pediatr 86: 423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 7.
    Breitweiser JA, Meyer RA, Sperling MA, Tsang RC, Kaplan S (1980) Cardioseptal hypertrophy in hyperinsulinemic infants. J Pediatr 96: 535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    Brown JK, Habel AH (1975) Toxic encephalopathy and acute brain swelling in children. Dev Med Child Neurol 17: 659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    Bucciarelli RL, Nelson RM, Egan EA II, Eitzman DV, Gessner IH (1977) Transient tricuspid insufficiency of the newborn: A form of myocardial dysfunction in stressed newborns. Pediatrics 59: 330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    Cabal LA, De Voskar U, Siassi B, Hodgman JE, Emmanouilides G (1980) Cardiogenic shock associated with perinatal asphyxia. J Pediatr 96: 705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    Cassin S, Dawes GS, Ross BB (1964a) Pulmonary blood flow and vascular resistance in immature fetal lambs. J Physiol (Lond) 171: 80Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Cassin S, Dawes GS, Mott JC, Ross BB, Strang LB (1964b) The vascular resistance of the fetal and newly ventilated lung of the lamb. J Physiol (Lond) 171: 61Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    Chessels JM, Wigglesworth JS (1971) Coagulation studies in severe birth asphyxia. Arch Dis Child 46: 253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    Cotton RB, Stahlman MT, Kovar I, Katterton WZ (1978) Medical management of small preterm infants with symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus. J Pediatr 92: 467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    David M, Ghali P, Gillet P, Bertrand J, Francois R, Jeune M (1977) Management of congenital adrenal hyperplasia by determinations of plasma testosterone, 17-OHprogesterone, and ACTH levels and plasma renin activity. In: Lee PA, Plotnick LP, Kowarski AA, Migeon CJ (eds) Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. University Park Press, Baltimore, p 183Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Dawes G (1968) Fetal and neonatal physiology. Year Book Medical Publishers, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    Dehan M, Ropert JC, Francoual C et al. (1979) Diagnostic biologique de la maladie des membranes hyalines et de l’inhalatation amniotique-Une étude de 100 nouveaux-nés en détresse respiratoire. Arch Fr Pediatr 36: 886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Dell RB, Winters RW (1972) Acid-base effects of hyper-tonic sodium bicarbonate solutions. (Commentary) J Pediatr 80: 681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Donnelly WH, Bucciarelli RL, Nelson RA (1980) Ischemic papillary muscle necrosis in stressed newborn infant. J Pediatr 96: 295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Dorand RD (1977) Neonatal asphyxia-An approach to physiology and management. Pediatr Clin North Am 24: 455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Dreszer M (1977) Fluid and electrolytes requirements in the newborn. Pediatr Clin North Am 24: 537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Edelmann CM Jr, Wolfish NM (1968) Dietary influence on renal maturation in premature infants. Pediatr Res 2: 421Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Edelmann CM Jr, Barnett HL, Troupkou V (1960) Renal concentrating mechanisms in newborn infants. Effect of dietary protein and water content, role of urea and responsiveness to anti-diuretic hormone. J Clin Invest 39: 1062PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Edelmann CM, Soriano JR, Bolchis H, Gruskin AB, Acosta MI (1967) Renal bicarbonate reabsorption and hydrogen ion excretion in normal infants. J Clin Invest 46: 1309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Engelke SC, Shah BL, Vasan U, Raye JR (1978) Sodium balance in very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr 93: 837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    Finberg L (1973) Diarrhea! dehydration. In Winters RW (ed) The body fluids in pediatrics. Little Brown, Boston, 349Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    Finley JP, Howman-Giles RB, Gilday DL, Bloom KR, Rowe RD (1979) Transient myocardial ischemia of the newborn infant demonstrated by Thallium myocardial imaging. J Pediatr 94: 263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Fox WW, Gewitz MH, Dinwiddie R, Drummont WH, Peckham GJ (1977) Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal aspiration syndromes. Pediatrics 59: 205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    Friedman WF, Hirschklan MS, Printz M, Pitlich PT, Kirkpatrick SE (1976) Pharmocological closure of P.D.A. in the premature infant. N Engl J Med 295: 526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Friedman WF, Heymann MA, Rudolph AM (1977) New thoughts on an old problem: patent ductus arteriosus in the premature. (Commentary) J Pediatr 90: 338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Gersony WM (1973) Persistence of the fetal circulation. Commentary J Pediatr 82: 1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    Gluck L, Kulovich MV (1973) L/S ratios in amniotic fluid in normal and abnormal pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 120: 524Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Goetzam BW, Sunshine P, Johnson JO et al. (1976) Persistence of fetal circulation. Hypoxia and pulmonary spasm: Response to tolazoline. J Pediatr 89: 617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    Gold F, Bourin M, Granry JC, Breteau M, Laugier J, (1979) Intérêt de la voie intra-veineuse pour l’utilisation du phénobarbital chez le nouveau-né à terme asphyxié. Arch Fr Pediatr 36: 61. 0Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    Guignard JP, Torrado A, Da Cunha O, Gautier E (1975) Glomerular filtration rate in the first three weeks of life. J Pediatr 87: 268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Gutgesell HT, Speer M, Rosenberg HS (1978) Further characterization of the hypertrophie cardiomyopathy of infants of diabetics mothers. Am J Cardiol 41: 406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    Haworth SG, Sarcia SR, Daniel SS, James LS (1968) Dangers of rapid correction of pH following asphyxia. Pediatr Res 2: 395Google Scholar
  39. 38.
    Hirschfeld S, Meyer R, Schwartz DC, Korfhagens J, Kaplan S (1975) Measurement of right and left ventricular systolic time intervals by echocardiography. Circulation 51: 304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    Hornyck H, Amiel-Tison C (1977) Rétention hydrosaline chez les enfants de faible poids de naissance. Arch Fr Pediatr 34: 206Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Huseman CA, Varma MM, Blizzard RM, Johanson A (1977) Treatment of congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia with multiple and single daily doses of prednisone. J Pediatr 90: 538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Jacob J, Gluck L, Di Sessa T, et al (1980) The contribution of P.D.A. in the neonate with severe R.D.S. J Pediatr 96: 79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Johnson GL, Douglas Cunningham M, Desai NS, Cottril CM, Noonan JA (1980) Echocardiography in hypoxemic neonatal pulmonary disease. J Pediatr 96: 716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 43.
    Karlberg P (1960) The adaptative changes in the immediate post natal period wih particular reference to respiration. J Pediatr 56: 560Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Kerpel-Fronius E, Hein T, Sulyok E (1970) The development of the renal acidifying processes and their relation to acidosis in low-birth-weight infants. Biol Neonat 15: 156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Kildeberg P (1964) Disturbances of hydrogen ion homeostasis. II. Late metabolic acidosis. Acta Paediatr Scand 53: 517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Klaus MH, Fanaroff AA (1979) Care of the high-risk neonote, 2nd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, p 34Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    Koch G, Lind J (1973) La circulation foetale et l’adaptation cardio-respiratoire néonatale. Bull Physiopathol Respir 9: 1389Google Scholar
  49. 48.
    Mace S, Hirschfeld SS, Riggs T, Fanaroff AA, Markatz IR, Franklin W (1979) Echocardiographic abnormalities in infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 95: 1013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    McIntosh N, Walters RD (1979) Effect of tolazoline in severe hyaline membrane disease. Arch Dis Child 54: 105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    Meurit TA, Di Sessa TG, Feldman BH, Kirkpatrick SE, Gluck L, Friedman WF (1979) Closure of the patent ductus arteriosus with ligation and indometocin. A consecutive experience. J Pediatr 95: 639Google Scholar
  52. 51.
    Moore ES, Fine BP, Satrasook SF, Vergel ZM, Edelmann CM (1972) Renal reabsorption of bicarbonate in puppies: Effect of extracellular volume contraction on the renal threshold for bicarbonate. Pediatr Res 6: 859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Morselli PL, Garattini S, Sereni F (1975) Basic and therapeutic aspects of perinatal pharmacology. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Naeyve RL, Letts HW (1962) The effect of prolonged neonatal hypoxemia on the pulmonary vasculary bed and heart. Pediatrics 30: 902Google Scholar
  55. 54.
    Nash MA, Edelmann CM Jr (1973) The developing kidney. Immature function or inappropriate standard? Nephron 11: 71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    Neims AH, Aranda JV, Laughnan PM (1977) Principles of neonatal pharmacology. In: Schaffer AJ, Avery ME (eds) Diseases of the newborn, 4th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia London Toronto, p 1020Google Scholar
  57. 56.
    O’Brien D, Hansen JDL, Smith CA (1954) Effect of supersaturated atmospheres an insensible water loss in the newborn infant. Pediatrics 13: 126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Oh W, Karecki H (1972) Phototherapy and insensible water loss in the newborn infant. Am J Dis Child 124: 230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Olbing H, Blaufox MD, Aschinberg LC et al. (1973) Postnatal changes in renal glomerular blood flow distribution in puppies. J Clin Invest 52: 2885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Pillion G, Beaufils F (1978) Etude de 46 cas de déshydratation grave du nouveau-né. Facteurs de gravité prévention. In: Journées Parisiennes de Pédiatrie. Paris Flammarion Médecine-Sciences, 481Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    Rienmenschneider TA, Nielsen HC, Ruttenberg HD, Jaffe RB (1976) Pulmonary hypertension and myocardial dysfunction. J Pediatr 89: 622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Riggs T, Hirschfeld S, Fanaroff AA, Liebman J, Meyer R (1977) Persistence of fetal circulation syndrome-an echo-cardiographic study. J Pediatr 91: 626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Robert MF, Neff RK, Hubbell JP, Talusch HW, Avery ME (1976) Association between maternal diabetes and respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn. N Engl J Med 294: 357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Ross B, Cowett RM, Oh W (1977) Renal functions of low birth weight infants during the first two months of life. Pediatr Res 11: 1662Google Scholar
  65. 64.
    Rowe RD, Hoffman T (1961) Transient myocardial ischemia of the newborn infant: A form of severe cardiorespiratory distress syndrome. Pediatrics 27: 551Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    Rubaltelli FF, Larga Jolli G (1973) Effect of light exposure on just transit time in jaundiced newborns. Acta Paediatr Scand 62: 146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Rudolph AM, Heymann MA (1970) Circulation changes during growth in fetal lamb. Circ Res 26: 289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Rudolph AM, Yuan S (1966) Response of the pulmonary vasculature to hypoxia and H+ concentration changes. J Clin Invest 45: 399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Scarpelli EM (1975) Pulmonary physiology of the fetus, newborn and child. Lee liu Febiger, Philadelphia, p 117Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Schaffer AS, Avery ME (1977) Diseases of the newborn, 4th edn, Saunders, Philadelphia, p 34Google Scholar
  71. 70.
    Siegel SR, Oh W (1976) Renal function as a marker of human fetal maturation. Acta Paediatr Scand 65: 481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Simmons MA, Adcok EW, Bard H, Battaglia FC (1974) Hypernatremia intracranial hemorrhage and NaHCO3 administration in neonates. N Engl J Med 291: 6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Strang LB (1977) Neonatal respiration-physiological and clinical studies. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford London Edinburgh, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Sulyok E, Heim T (1971) Assessment of maximal urinary acidification in premature infants. Biol Neonat 19: 200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Sulyok E, Heim T, Soltesz G, Jaszai V (1972) The influence of maturity on renal control of acidosis in newborn infants. Biol Neonat 21: 418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Sulyok E, Varga F, Györy E, Jobst K, Csaba IF (1980) On the mechanism of renal sodium handling in newborn infants. Biol Neonate 37: 75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Svenningsen NW, Aronson AS (1974) Post natal development of renal concentration capacity as estimated by DDAVP-test in normal and asphyxiated neonates. Biol Neonate 25: 230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Svenningsen NW, Lindquist B (1973) Incidence of metabolic acidosis in term, preterm, and small for gestational age infants in relation to dietary protein intake. Acta Paediatr Scand 62: 1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Way GL, Walfe RR, Estregpour E, Bender RL, Jaffe RB, Ruttenberg HD (1979) The natural history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr 95: 1020PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Winters RW (1973) Metabolic alkalosis of pyloric steno-sis. In: Winters RW (ed) The body fluids in pediatrics. Little Brown, Boston, p 402Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    WU PYK, Hodgman JE (1974) Insensible water loss in preterm infants: Changes with post natal development and non ionizing radiant energy. Pediatrics 54: 704PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Beaufils
  • Y. Aujard
  • Y. Bompard

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations