The major function of the cardiorenal system is to maintain the fluid bathing the cells at a constant composition, for it is through this pericellular fluid that O2 and nutrients are delivered and waste products of metabolism removed. The early marine vertebrates had an extracellular fluid similar to that of their saltwater environment, but with evolution to fresh water and land there were various modifications, which included the development of an integument impermeable to water and modifications in renal function to allow the excretion or conservation of water and sodium according to the prevailing conditions.
KeywordsMagnesium Angiotensin Dehydration Bicarbonate Expense
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Alfrey AC (1976) Disorders of magnesium metabolism. In: Schrier RW (ed) Renal and electrolyte disorders. Little Brown, Boston, pp 223–242Google Scholar
- 2.Belcher KH, Vetter H (1971) Radioisotopes in medical diagnosis. Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 6.Brenner BM, Stein JH (1978) Sodium and water homeostasis. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
- 7.Christensen HN (1975) Biological transport, 2nd edn. Benjamin, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 8.De Fronzo RA, Sherwin RS, Dillingham M, Hendler R, Tamborlane WV, Felig P (1978) Influence of basal insulin and glucogen secretion on potassium and sodium metabolism. 1. Studies with somatostatin in normal dogs and diabetic human beings. J Clin Invest 61: 472–479Google Scholar
- 10.Gamble JL (1958) Clinical anatomy, physiology and pathology of extracellular fluid, 7th edn. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- 15.Ruszynak I, Foldi M, Szabo G (1960) Lymphatics and lymph circulation. Elmsford, Pergamon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 16.Skelkurt EE (1976) Body water and electrolyte composition, Physiology, 4th edn. Little Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
- 17.Stein WD (1967) The movement of molecules across cell membranes. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 18.Strauss MB (1957) Body water in man. Little Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
- 22.Wright EM (1983) Mechanisms of sodium transport across brush border and basolateral membranes. In: Gillest-Baillian M, Gilles R (eds) Intestinal transport. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- 23.Wright FS (1974) Potassium transport by the renal tubule, vol 6. University Park Press, Baltimore (Physiology series one: kidney and urinary tract physiology) pp 79–105Google Scholar