Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

  • F. D. Thompson


The major function of the cardiorenal system is to maintain the fluid bathing the cells at a constant composition, for it is through this pericellular fluid that O2 and nutrients are delivered and waste products of metabolism removed. The early marine vertebrates had an extracellular fluid similar to that of their saltwater environment, but with evolution to fresh water and land there were various modifications, which included the development of an integument impermeable to water and modifications in renal function to allow the excretion or conservation of water and sodium according to the prevailing conditions.


Osmotic Pressure Extracellular Fluid Interstitial Fluid Distal Tubule Extracellular Compartment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alfrey AC (1976) Disorders of magnesium metabolism. In: Schrier RW (ed) Renal and electrolyte disorders. Little Brown, Boston, pp 223–242Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Belcher KH, Vetter H (1971) Radioisotopes in medical diagnosis. Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bennett HS, Luft JH, Hampton JC (1959) Morphological characteristics of vertebrate blood capillaries. Am J Physiol 196: 381–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bia M], De Fronzo RA (1981) Extrarenal potassium homeostasis. Am J Physiol 240: F257–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Borle AB (1974) Calcium and phosphate metabolism. Annu Rev Physiol 36: 361–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brenner BM, Stein JH (1978) Sodium and water homeostasis. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Christensen HN (1975) Biological transport, 2nd edn. Benjamin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Fronzo RA, Sherwin RS, Dillingham M, Hendler R, Tamborlane WV, Felig P (1978) Influence of basal insulin and glucogen secretion on potassium and sodium metabolism. 1. Studies with somatostatin in normal dogs and diabetic human beings. J Clin Invest 61: 472–479Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Edelman IS, Liebman J (1959) Anatomy of body water and electrolytes. Am J Med 27: 256–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gamble JL (1958) Clinical anatomy, physiology and pathology of extracellular fluid, 7th edn. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gennari FJ, Cohen JL (1975) Potassium homeostasis and acid base balance. Kidney Int 8: 1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Glynn IM (1968) Membrane ATP-ase and cation transport. Br Med Bull 24: 165–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jamison RL, Maffly RH (1976) Osmotic concentration and dilution of urine. N Engl J Med 295: 1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jorgensen PL (1982) Mechanism of the Na+, K+ pump protein structure and conformations of the pure (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. Biochim Biophys Acta 694: 27–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ruszynak I, Foldi M, Szabo G (1960) Lymphatics and lymph circulation. Elmsford, Pergamon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Skelkurt EE (1976) Body water and electrolyte composition, Physiology, 4th edn. Little Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stein WD (1967) The movement of molecules across cell membranes. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Strauss MB (1957) Body water in man. Little Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Verney EB (1947) Antidiuretic hormone and the factors which determine its release. Proc R Soc Lond (Biol) 135: 25–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wiederhielm CA (1968) Dynamics of transcapillary fluid exchange. J Gen Physiol 52: 29–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wilbrandt T, Rosenberg T (1961) The concept of carrier transport. Pharmacol Rev 13: 109–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wright EM (1983) Mechanisms of sodium transport across brush border and basolateral membranes. In: Gillest-Baillian M, Gilles R (eds) Intestinal transport. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wright FS (1974) Potassium transport by the renal tubule, vol 6. University Park Press, Baltimore (Physiology series one: kidney and urinary tract physiology) pp 79–105Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. D. Thompson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations