The Physiology of the Newborn

  • M. P. Ward Platt
  • E. N. Hey

Abstract

The physiology of newborn babies differs from that of older infants, children and adults in a manner of fundamental importance: it changes, over a timescale of hours and days. The behaviour of almost all body systems, which in older humans is predictable within certain limits from one day or week to another, changes rapidly in newborn babies. For the neonatal period is a time of adaptation from intrauterine to extrauterine life, and this adaptation is a dynamic process which does not take place instantaneously. Thus knowledge of many aspects of the physiology of adults and even of children is unhelpful in understanding that of babies.

Keywords

Lipase Respiration Carbon Monoxide Neurol Hull 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Als H, Lawhon G, Brown E et al. (1986) Individualized behavioral and environmental care for the very low birth weight preterm infant at high risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia: neonatal intensive care unit and developmental outcome. Pediatrics 78: 1123–1133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anand KJS, Hickey PR (1987) Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. N Engl J Med 317: 1321–1329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anand KJS, Brown MJ, Bloom SR, Aynsley-Green A (1985) Studies on the hormonal regulation of fuel metabolism in the human newborn infant undergoing anaesthesia and surgery. Horm Res 22: 115–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anand KJS, Brown MJ, Causon RC, Christofides ND, Bloom SR, Aynsley-Green A (1985) Can the human neonate mount an endocrine and metabolic response to surgery? J Pediatr Surg 20: 41–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anand KJS, Carr DB, Hickey PR (1987) Randomized trial of high-dose sufentanil anesthesia in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery: hormonal and hemodynamic stress responses. Anesthesiology 67: A502 (abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anand KJS, Sippell WG, Aynsley-Green A (1987) Randomised trial of fentanyl anaesthesia in preterm neonates undergoing surgery: effects on the stress response. Lancet i: 132–248Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anand KJS, Sippell WG, Schofield NM, Aynsley- Green A (1988) Does halothane anaesthesia decrease the metabolic and endocrine stress responses of newborn infants undergoing operation? Br Med J 296: 668–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aperia A, Broberger O, Thodenius K, Zetterstrom R (1972) Renal response to an oral sodium load in newborn full-term infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 61: 670–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aperia A, Broberger O, Thodenius K, Zetterstrom R (1975) Development of renal control of salt and fluid homeostasis during the first year of life. Acta Paediatr Scand 64: 393–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aynsley-Green A (1988) The adaptation of the human neonate to extrauterine nutrition: a pre-requisite for postnatal growth. In: Cockburn F (ed) Fetal and neonatal growth. Wiley, Chichester, pp 153–193Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bartoletti AL, Stevenson DK, Ostrander CR, Johnson JD (1979) Pulmonary excretion of carbon monoxide in the human infant as an index of bilirubin production. I. Effects of gestational age and postnatal age and some common neonatal abnormalities. J Pediatr 94: 952–955Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bjure J, Liden G, Reinand T, Vestby A (1961) A follow-up study of hyperbilirubinaemia in full-term infants without isoimmunisation. Acta Paediatr Scand 50: 437–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blanco CE, Hanson MA, McCooke HB (1985) Studies in utero of the mechanisms of chemoreceptor resetting. In: Jones CT, Nathanielsz PW (eds) The physiological development of the fetus and the newborn. Academic Press, London, pp 639–641Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bliss-Holtz J (1989) Comparison of rectal, axillary and inguinal temperatures in full-term newborn infants. Nurs Res 38: 85–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brady JP, Ceruti E (1966) Chemoreceptor reflexes in the newborn infant: effects of varying degrees of hypoxia on heart rate and ventilation in a warm environment. J Physiol (Lond) 184: 631–645Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brady JP, Rigatto H (1971) Pulmonary capillary flow in the newborn infant; a new method using the Plethysmograph and nitrous oxide. Pediatrics 48: 207–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bruck K (1961) Temperature regulation in the newborn infant. Biol Neonate 3: 65–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bruck K (1968) Which environmental temperature does the premature infant prefer? Pediatrics 41: 1027–1030PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bureau MA, Lamarche J, Foulon P et al. (1985) The ventilatory response to hypoxia in the newborn lamb after carotid body denervation. Respir Physiol 60: 109–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burnard ED, Granang A, Gray RE (1966) Cardiac output in the newborn infant. Clin Sei 31: 121–133Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Choonara I (1989) Pain relief. Arch Dis Child 64: 1101–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chugani HT, Phelps ME (1986) Maturational changes in cerebral function in infants determined by 18FDG positron emission tomography. Science 231: 840–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Coulthard MG (1985) Maturation of glomerular filtration in preterm and mature babies. Early Hum Dev 11: 281–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Coulthard MG, Hey EN (1984) Weight as the best standard for glomerular filtration in the newborn. Arch Dis Child 59: 373–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Coulthard MG, Hey EN, Ruddock V (1985) Creatinine and urea clearances compared to inulin clearance in preterm and mature babies. Early Hum Dev 11: 11–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cross KW, Gustavson J, Hill JR, Robinson DC (1966) Thermoregulation in an anencephalic infant as inferred from its metabolic rate under hypothermic and normal conditions. Clin Sei Mol Med 31: 449–460Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Davi M, Sankaran K, MacCallum M, Cates D, Rigatto H (1979) Effect of sleep state on chest distortion and on the ventilatory response to C02 in neonates. Pediatr Res 13: 982–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Davis GM, Bureau MA (1987) Pulmonary and chest wall mechanics in the control of respiration in the newborn. Clin Perinatol 14: 551–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Davis GM, Hobbs S, Bureau MA (1986) Limitation of the ventilatory response to C02 in newborn lambs. Am Rev Respir Dis (suppl) 133: A136Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Day RL (1941) Regulation of body temperature during sleep. Am J Dis Child 61: 734–746Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    De Swiet M, Fayers P, Shinebourne EA (1976) Blood pressure survey in a population of newborn infants. Br Med J ii: 9–11Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dixon S, Snyder J, Holve R, Bromberger P (1984) Behavioural effects of circumcision with and without anesthesia. J Dev Behav Pediatr 5: 246–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Earley A, Fayers P, Ng S, Shinebourne EA, De Swiet M (1980) Blood pressure in the first 6 weeks of life. Arch Dis Child 55: 755–757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 35.
    Emmanouilides GC, Moss AJ, Monset-Couchard M, Marcano BFA, Rzeznic B (1970) Cardiac output in newborn infants. Biol Neonate 15: 186–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 36.
    Fillion TH, Blass EM (1986) Infantile experience with sucking odors determines adult sexual behaviour in male rats. Science 231: 729–731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 37.
    Fitzgerald M, Mcintosh N (1989) Pain and analgesia in the newborn. Arch Dis Child 64: 441–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 38.
    Friis-Hansen B (1971) Body composition during growth: biochemical data and in vivo measurements. Pediatrics 47: 264–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 39.
    Gagge AP, Hardy JD, Rapp GM (1965) Experimental study on comfort for high temperature sources of radiant heat. Trans Am Soc Heat Refrig Air Cond Eng 71: 19–26Google Scholar
  39. 40.
    Gauntlett IS (1987) Analgesia and anaesthesia in newborn babies and infants. Lancet i: 1090Google Scholar
  40. 41.
    Gauntlett IS (1987) Analgesia in the neonate. Br J Hosp Med 37: 518–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 42.
    Gartner LM (1983) Breast milk jaundice. In: Levine RL, Maisels MJ (eds): hyperbilirubinaemia in the newborn. Report of the 85th Ross Conference on Pediatric Research. Ross Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio, pp 75–91Google Scholar
  42. 43.
    Gartner LM, Lee K-S, Vaisman S, Lane D, Zarafu I (1977) Development of bilirubin transport and metabolism in the newborn rhesus monkey. J Pediatr 90: 513–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 44.
    Gartner LM, Lee K-S, Moscioni AD (1983) Effect of milk feeding on intestinal bilirubin absorption in the rat. J Pediatr 103: 464–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 45.
    Gersony WM (1984) Neonatal pulmonary hypertension: pathophysiology, classification, and etiology. Clin Perinatol 11: 517–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 46.
    Gentile R, Stevenson G, Dooley T, Franklin D, Kawabori I, Pearlman A (1981) Pulsed Doppler echocardio- graphic determination of time of ductal closure in normal newborn infants. J Pediatr 98: 443–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 47.
    Gilles FJ, Shankle W, Dooling EC (1983) Myelinated tracts: growth patterns. In: Gilles FJ, Levi ton A, Dooling EC (eds) The developing human brain: growth and epidemiologic neuropathology. John Wright, Boston, pp 117–183Google Scholar
  47. 48.
    Gittenberger-De Groot AC (1977) Persistent ductus arteriosus: most probably a primary congenital mal-formation. Br Heart J 39: 610–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 49.
    Grunau RVE, Craig KD (1987) Pain expression in neonates: facial action and cry. Pain 28: 395–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 50.
    Guthrie RD, Standaert TA, Hodson WA et al. (1981) Development of C02 sensitivity: effects of gestational age, postnatal age, and sleep state. J Appl Physiol 50: 956–961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 51.
    Harpin VA, Rutter N (1982) Development of emotional sweating in the newborn infant. Arch Dis Child 57: 691–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 52.
    Harvey D, Cooke RWI, Levitt GA (eds) (1989) The baby under 1000 g. Butterworth, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. 53.
    Hey EN (1969) The relation between environmental temperature and oxygen consumption in the newborn baby. J Physiol (Lond) 200: 589–603Google Scholar
  53. 54.
    Hey EN (1975) Thermal neutrality. Br Med Bull 31: 69–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 55.
    Hey EN, Katz G (1969) Evaporative water loss in the newborn baby. J Physiol 200: 605–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 56.
    Hey EN, Katz G (1970) The range of thermal insulation in the tissues of the newborn baby. J Physiol (Lond) 207: 667–681Google Scholar
  56. 57.
    Hey EN, Katz G, O’Connell B (1970) The total thermal insulation of the newborn baby. J Physiol (Lond) 207: 683–698Google Scholar
  57. 58.
    Holland WW, Young IM (1956) Neonatal blood pressure in relation to maturity, mode of delivery and condition at birth. Br Med J ii: 1331–1333Google Scholar
  58. 59.
    Hsieh K-S, Hwang B-T, Yeh K-S, Meng L (1989) Time course of pulmonary arterial pressure change in the early postnatal period - noninvasive color doppler and continuous wave doppler echocardiographic study. J Am Coll Cardiol 13: 225AGoogle Scholar
  59. 60.
    Hull D (1966) The structure and function of brown adipose tissue. Br Med Bull 22: 92–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 61.
    Hull J, Hull D (1982) Behavioural thermoregulation in newborn rabbits. J Comp Physiol Psychol 96: 143–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 62.
    Hutchinson R (1906) Lectures on diseases of children. Edward Arnold, London, p 5Google Scholar
  62. 63.
    Karlberg P (1952) Determination of standard energy metabolism (basal metabolism) in normal infants. Acta Paediatr Scand [Suppl] 41: 89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 64.
    Karlberg P, Moore RE, Oliver TK (1962) The thermogenic response of the newborn infant to noradrenaline. Acta Paediatr Scand 51: 284–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 65.
    Kirkland RT, Kirkland JL (1972) Systolic blood pressure measurement in the newborn infants with the transcutaneous Doppler method. J Pediatr 80: 52–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 66.
    Knudsen A, Brodersen R (1989) Skin colour and bilirubin in neonates. Arch Dis Child 64: 605–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 67.
    Leake R, Trygstad C (1977) Glomerular filtration rate during the period of adaptation to extrauterine life. Pediatr Res 11: 959–962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 68.
    Lee Y-H, Rosner B, Gould JB, Lowe EW, Kass EH (1976) Familial aggregation of blood pressures of newborn infants and their mothers. Pediatrics 58: 722–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 69.
    Levison H, Kidd BSL, Gemmell PA, Swyer PR (1966) Blood pressure in normal full-term and premature infants. Am J Dis Child 111: 374–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 70.
    Lind J (1968) Placental transfusion and cardiorespiratory adaptation of the newborn infant. Ann Paediatr Fenn 14: 1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 71.
    Lipsitt LP (1977) The study of sensory and learning processes of the newborn. Clin Perinatol 4: 163–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 72.
    MacDonald S, Emery JL (1959) The late intrauterine and postnatal development of human renal glomeruli. J Anat 93: 331–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 73.
    Maisels MJ (1987) Neonatal jaundice. In: Avery GB (ed) Neonatology. Pathophysiology and management of the newborn. Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp 534–629Google Scholar
  73. 74.
    Marshall RE, Stratton WC, Moore JA, Boxerman SB (1980) Circumcision. I. Effects upon newborn behaviour. Infant Behav Dev 3: 1–14Google Scholar
  74. 75.
    Marshall RE, Porter FL, Rogers AG, Moore JA, Anderson B, Boxerman SB (1982) Circumcision. II. Effects upon mother-infant interaction. Early Hum Dev 7: 367–374Google Scholar
  75. 76.
    Marti E, Gibson SJ, Polak JM et al. (1987) Ontogeny of peptide and amino-containing neurons in motor, sensory and autonomic regions of rat and human spinal cord. J Comp Neurol 266: 332–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 77.
    Mathew PM, Wharton BA (1981) Investigation and management of neonatal jaundice: a problem- orientated case record. Arch Dis Child 56: 949–953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 78.
    McGraw MD (1943) The neuromuscular maturation of the human infant. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  78. 79.
    Merskey H (1970) On the development of pain. Headache 10: 116–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 80.
    Merskey H, Albe-Fessard DG, Bonica JJ et al. (1979) Pain terms: a list with definitions and notes on usage: recommended by the IASP subcommittee on taxonomy. Pain 6: 249–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 81.
    Michelsson K, Jarvenpaa A-L, Rinne A (1983) Sound spectrographic analysis of pain cry in preterm infants. Early Hum Dev 8: 141–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 82.
    Moss AJ, Duffie ER, Emmanouilides G (1963) Blood pressure and vasomotor reflexes in the newborn infant. Pediatrics 32: 175–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 83.
    Nelson NM (1976) Respiration after birth. In: Smith CA, Nelson NM (eds) Physiology of the newborn infant, 4th edn CC Thomas, Springfield, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  83. 84.
    Oh W (1986) Neonatal polycythaemia and hyperviscosity. Pediatr Clin North Am 33: 523–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 85.
    Oh W, Wallgren G, Hanson JS et al. (1967) The effects of placental transfusion on respiratory mechanics of normal term newborn infants. Pediatrics 40: 6–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 86.
    Onishi S, Kawade N, Itoh S et al. (1979) Postnatal development of uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase activity towards bilirubin and 2-aminophenol in human liver. Biochem J 184: 705–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 87.
    Owens ME (1984) Pain in infancy: conceptual and methodological issues. Pain 20: 213–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 88.
    Owens ME, Todt EH (1984) Pain in infancy: neonatal reaction to a heel lance. Pain 20: 77–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 89.
    Peterson RG (1983) Pharmacology. In: Boyd R, Battag- lia FC (eds) Perinatal medicine. Butterworth, London, pp 131–144Google Scholar
  89. 90.
    Poland RL (1981) Breast milk jaundice. J Pediatr 99: 86–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 91.
    Poland RD, Odell GB (1971) Physiologic jaundice: the enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin. N Engl J Med 284: 1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 92.
    Porter FL, Porges SW, Marshall RE (1988) Newborn pain cries and vagal tone: parallel changes in response to circumcision. Child Dev 59: 495–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 93.
    Reder RF, Dimich I, Cohen ML, Steinfield L (1978) Evaluating indirect blood pressure measurement tech-niques: a comparison of 3 systems in infants and children. Pediatrics 62: 326–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 94.
    Rigatto H, Brady JP, de la Torre Verduzco R (1975) Chemoreceptor reflexes in preterm infants. II. The effect of gestational and postnatal age on the ventilatory response to inhaled carbon dioxide. Pediatrics 55: 614–620Google Scholar
  94. 95.
    Rigatto H, de la Torre Verduzco R, Cates DB (1975) Effects of 02 on the ventilatory response to C02 in preterm infants. J Appl Physiol 39: 896–899Google Scholar
  95. 96.
    Romero TE, Friedman WF (1979) Limited left ventricular response to volume overload in the neonatal period: a comparative study with the adult animal. Pediatr Res 13: 910–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 97.
    Roth P, Polin RA (1985) Controversial topics in kernicterus. Clin Perinatol 15: 965–990Google Scholar
  97. 98.
    Rudolph AM (1970) The changes in the circulation after birth. Their importance in congenital heart disease. Circulation 41: 343–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 99.
    Rutter N, Hull D (1979) Response of term babies to a warm environment. Arch Dis Child 54: 178–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 100.
    Rutter N, Hull D (1979) Water loss from the skin of term and preterm babies. Arch Dis Child 54: 858–868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 101.
    Rutter N, Brown SM, Hull D (1978) Variation in the resting oxygen consumption of small babies. Arch Dis Child 53: 850–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 102.
    Sheridan-Pereira M, Gorman W (1982) Transcutaneous bilirubinometry: an evaluation. Arch Dis Child 57: 708–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 103.
    Singleton MA, Rosen JK, Fisher DM (1987) Plasma concentrations of fentanyl in infants, children and adults. Can J Anaesth 34: 152–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 104.
    Stevenson DK, Bartoletti AL, Ostrander CR, Johnson JD (1980) Pulmonary excretion of carbon monoxide in the human infant as an index of bilirubin production. IV. Effects of breast feeding and caloric intake in the first postnatal week. Pediatrics 65: 1170–1172Google Scholar
  104. 105.
    Strang LB. Neonatal respiration. Physiological and clinical studies. Mosby, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  105. 106.
    Tan KL (1988) Blood pressure in very low birthweight infants in the first 70 days of life. J Pediatr 112: 266–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 107.
    Torres F, Anderson C (1985) The normal EEG of the human newborn. J Clin Neurophysiol 2: 89–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 108.
    Usher R, Shephard M, Lind J (1963) The blood volume of the newborn infant and placental transfusion. Acta Paediatr Scand 52: 497–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 109.
    Versmold HT, Kitterman JA, Phibbs Rh, Gregory GA, Tooley WH (1981) Aortic blood pressure during the first 12 hours of life in infants with birth weight 610 to 4220 grams. Pediatrics 67: 607–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 110.
    Wallgren G, Barr M, Rudhe U (1964) Haemodynamic studies of induced acute hypo- and hypervolaemia in the newborn infant. Acta Pediatr Scand 53: 1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 111.
    Wallgren G, Hanson JS, Lind J (1967) Quantitative studies of the human neonatal circulation. III. Observations on the newborn infant’s central circulatory response to moderate hypovolaemia. Acta Paediatr Scand [Suppl] 179: 43–54Google Scholar
  111. 112.
    Walther FJ, Siassi B, Ramadan NA, Ananda AK, Wu PYK (1985) Pulsed Doppler determinations of cardiac output in neonates: normal standards for clinical use. Pediatrics 76: 829–833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 113.
    Weindling AM (1989) Blood pressure monitoring in the newborn. Arch Dis Child 64: 444–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 114.
    Wennberg RP (1986) Bilirubin physiology. In: Roberton NRC (ed) Textbook of neonatal medicine. Churchill Livingstone, London, pp 383–393Google Scholar
  114. 115.
    Wheldon AC, Rutter N (1982) The heat balance of small babies nursed in incubators and under radiant warmers. Early Hum Dev 6: 131–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 116.
    Whitelaw A, Cooke RWI (eds) (1988) The very immature infant of less than 28 weeks gestation. Br Med Bull 44Google Scholar
  116. 117.
    Wilmore DW, Long JM, Mason AD, Skreen RW, Pruitt BA (1974) Catecholamines: mediator of the hypermeta- bolic response to thermal injury. Ann Surg 180: 653–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 118.
    Wispe JR, Roberts RJ (1987) Molecular basis of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Clin Perinatol 14: 651–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 119.
    Young M, Cottom D (1966) Arterial and venous blood pressure responses during a reduction in blood volume and hypoxia and hypercapnia in infants during the first two days of life. Pediatrics 37: 733–742PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. P. Ward Platt
  • E. N. Hey

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations