The Normal Pancreas

  • A. H. Cruickshank


The Greek anatomists of the Alexandrian school of medicine that flourished about 300 B.C. were familiar with the pancreas and were probably responsible for naming this organ, whose name means “all flesh”. The word they used for “flesh” was the word for animal meat used for food which suggests that at that time the pancreas, still one of the organs prized as “sweetbread”, may have been a delicacy. Andreas Vesalius in his famous work On the Fabric of the Human Body, published in 1543, differentiated between the pancreas and the mesenteric lymph nodes but some confusion about the distinction appears to have persisted for almost a century after that time. In 1642 Wirsung identified, in man, the pancreatic duct that still bears his name, and in 1775 Santorini recognised that an accessory duct might be present.


Common Bile Duct Pancreatic Duct Pancreatic Tissue Main Pancreatic Duct Normal Pancreas 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson M (1979) Pancreatic disease in childhood. In: Howat HT, Sarles H (eds) The exocrine pancreas. Saunders, London Philadelphia, pp 313–339Google Scholar
  2. Andrew W (1944) Senile changes in the pancreas of Wistar Institute rats and of man with special regard to the similarity of locule and cavity formation. Am J Anat 74:79–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Assawamatiyanont S, King AD (1977) Dermoid cysts of the pancreas. Am Surg 43:503–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldwin WM (1911) The pancreatic ducts in man, together with a study of the microscopical structure of the minor duodenal papilla. Anat Rec 5:197–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ballinger J (1941) Hypoglycemia from metastasizing insular carcinoma of aberrant pancreatic tissue in the liver. Arch Pathol 32:277–285Google Scholar
  6. Barbosa JJ DeC, Dockerty MB, Waugh JM (1946a) Pancreatic heterotopia: a review of the literature and report of 41 authenticated cases, of which 25 were clinically significant. Surg Gynecol Obstet 82:52 7–542Google Scholar
  7. Barbosa JJ DeC, Dockerty MB, Waugh JM (1946b) Pancreatic heterotopia; surgical cases. Proc Staff Meet Mayo Clin 21:246–255Google Scholar
  8. Bartholomew LG, Baggenstoss AH, Morlock CG, Comfort MW (1959) Primary atrophy and lipomatosis of the pancreas. Gastroenterology 36:563–5 72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berman LG, Prior JT, Abramow SM, Ziegler DD (1960) A study of the pancreatic duct system in man by the use of vinyl acetate casts of post mortem preparations. Surg Gynecol Obstet 110:391–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bigelow NH (1953) The association of polycystic kidneys with intracranial aneurysms and other related disorders. Am J Med Sci 225:485–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Birnstingl M (1959–60) A study of pancreatography. Br J Surg 47:128–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bodian M, Sheldon W, Lightwood R (1964) Congenital hypoplasia of the exocrine pancreas. Acta Paediatr 53:282–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Branch CD, Gross RE (1935) Aberrant pancreatic tissue in the gastro-intestinal tract. Arch Surg 31:200–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beresford OD, Owen TK (1957) Lipomatous pseudohypertrophy of the pancreas. J Clin Pathol 10:63–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burne JC (1958) Pancreatic and gastric heterotopia in a diverticulum of the transverse colon. J Pathol Bact 75:4 70–4 71Google Scholar
  16. Cotton PB, Kizu M (1977) Malfusion of dorsal and ventral pancreas; a cause of pancreatitis. Gut 18:A 400Google Scholar
  17. Cross KR (1956) Accessory pancreatic ducts. Arch Pathol 61:434–440Google Scholar
  18. Dalgaard OZ (1957) Bilateral polycystic disease of the kidney. Acta Med Scand [Suppl] 328:1–255Google Scholar
  19. Davison C, Brock S, Dyke CG (1936) Retinal and central nervous hemangiomatosis with visceral changes (von Hippel-Lindau’s disease). BuU Neurol Inst NY 5:72–93Google Scholar
  20. Dawson W, Langman J (19 61) An anatomical-radiological study on the pancreatic duct pattern in man. Anat Rec 139:59–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DeCourcy JL (1943) Dermoid cyst of pancreas. Ann Surg 118:394–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. de Lange C, Janssen TAE (1948) Large solitary pancreatic cyst and other developmental errors in a premature infant. Am J Dis Child 75:587–594Google Scholar
  23. Dennis WA (1923) Dermoid cyst of the pancreas. Surg Clin North Am 3:1319–1322Google Scholar
  24. Dodge J A, Laurence KM (1977) Congenital absence of islets of Langerhans. Arch Dis Child 52:411–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dolan RV, Re Mine WH, Dockerty MB (1974) The fate of heterotopic pancreatic tissue. A study of 212 cases. Arch Surg 109:762–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Duff GL, Foster HL, Bryan WW (1943) Primary carcinoma of the infra-ampuUary portion of the duodenum. Arch Surg 46:494–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goldfarb WB, Bennett D, Monafo W (1963) Carcinoma in heterotopic pancreas. Ann Surg 158:56–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gregg JA (1977) Pancreas divisum: Its association with pancreatitis. Am J Surg 134:539–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Halpert B, Alden ZA (1964) Accessory spleens in or at the tail of the pancreas. Arch Pathol 77:652–654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Halpert B, Györkey F (1957) Accessory spleen in the tail of the pancreas. Arch Pathol 64:266–269Google Scholar
  31. Halpert B, Györkey F (1959) Lesions observed in accessory spleens of 311 patients. Am J Clin Pathol 32:165–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Heptinstal RH (1966) Pathology of the kidney, 1st edn. Churchill, London, p 85Google Scholar
  33. Higgins GM (1926) An aberrant pancreas in the wall of the gall bladder of the dog. Anat Ree 33:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hollingworth P, Isaacs D, Bydder G (1979) Recurrent osteolytic lesions and subcutaneous fat necrosis in association with a developmental pancreatic cyst. Arch Dis Child 54:790–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hyden WH (1963) The true nature of annular pancreas. Ann Surg 157:71–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Judd ES (1921) Cysts of the pancreas. Minnesota Med 4:75–82Google Scholar
  37. Keith A (1903) On the nature and anatomy of enteroptosis (Glenard’s disease). Lancet 1:629–640Google Scholar
  38. Kellett HS, Lippard D, Willis RA (1962) Two unusual examples of heteroplasia in the lung. J Pathol Bact 84:421–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kerr DNS, Harrison CV, Sherlock S, Milnes Walker R (1961) Congenital hepatic fibrosis. Q J Med 30:91–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kinney TD, Fitzgerald PJ (1947) Lindau-von Hippel disease with hemangioblastoma of the spinal cord and syringomyelia. Arch Pathol 43:439–455Google Scholar
  41. Kreel L, Sandin B (1973) Changes in pancreatic morphology associated with aging. Gut 14: 962–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kreel L, Sandin B, Slavin G (1973) Pancreatic morphology, a combined radiological and pathological study. Clin Radiol 24:154–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lindau A (1926) Studien über Kleinhirncysten. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand [Suppl] 1:1–129Google Scholar
  44. Lindau A (1930–31) Discussion on vascular tumours of the brain and spinal cord. Proc R Soc Med 24 (1):363–3 70Google Scholar
  45. Lister J (1978) Duodenal atresia and stenosis; annular pancreas. In: Richham PP, Lister J, Irving IM (eds) Neonatal surgery, 2nd edn. Butterworths, London, pp 357–358Google Scholar
  46. Lytle WJ (1959–60) The common bile-duct groove in the panceas. Br J Surg 4 7:209–212Google Scholar
  47. MacKinnon D, Nash FW (1957) Pyloric obstiruction due to pancreatic heterotopia in a child. Br Med J1:87–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McGeoch JEM, Darmady EM (1976) Polycystic disease of kidney, liver and pancreas; a possible pathogenesis. J Pathol 119:221–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mahomed (1884) Quoted by Hale White W (1897) Guy’s Hospital Reports 54:17–63Google Scholar
  50. Mann FC (1922) Accessory pancreas in the dog. Anat Ree 19:263–268Google Scholar
  51. Masson JC, Caylor HD (1929) Dermoid cyst of the pancreas. Surg Clin North Am 9:837–839Google Scholar
  52. Miles RM (1959) Pancreatic cyst in the newborn. Ann Surg 149:576–581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Millbourn E (1950) On the excretory ducts of the pancreas in man, with special reference to their relations to each other, to the common bile duct and to the duodenum. Acta Anatom 9:1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mitchell CJ, Lintott DJ, Ruddell WSJ, Losowsky MS, Axon ATR (1979) Clinical relevance of an unfused pancreatic duct system. Gut 20:1066–1071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mitchell N, Angrist A (1943) Myo-epithelial hamartoma of the gastro-intestinal tract (Clarke). Ann Intern Med 19:9 52–964Google Scholar
  56. Mobini J, Krouse TB, Cooper DR (1974) Intrahepatic pancreatic heterotopia. Review and report of a case presenting as an abdominal mass. Am J Digest Dis 19:64r–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Newman HF, Weinberg SB, Newman EB, Northup JD (19 58) The papilla of Vater and distal portions of the common bile duct and duct of Wirsung. Surg Gynecol Obstet 106:68 7–694Google Scholar
  58. Nicholson GW (1923) The importance of congenital malformations in tumour formation. Guy’s Hospital Reports, 73:3 7–64Google Scholar
  59. Ogilvie RF (1933) The islands of Langerhans in 19 cases of obesity. J Pathol Bact 3 7:473–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Olsen TS (1978) Lipomatosis of the pancreas in autopsy material and its relation to age and overweight. Acta Microbiol Scand Sect A 86:367–373Google Scholar
  61. Orci L, Stefan Y, Malaisse-Lagae F, Perrelet A, Patel Y (1979) Pancreatic fat. N Engl J Med 301:1292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Pabner ED (1951) Benign intramural tumors of the stomach. Medicine 30:81–96Google Scholar
  63. Pearson HA, Lobel JS, Kocoshis SA, Naiman JL, Windmiller J, Lanmü AT, Hoffman R, Marsh JC (1979) A new syndrome of refractory sideroblastic anemia with vacuolization of marrow precursors and exocrine pancreatic dysftmction. J Pediatr 95:976–984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pearson S (1951) Aberrant pancreas: Review of literature and report of 3 cases, one of which produced common and pancreatic duct obstruction. Arch Surg 63:168–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Power WH (1961) Pancreatic cyst in infancy: Recovery after marsupilalization. BrMed jn:625–626Google Scholar
  66. Ravitch MM (1973) Anomalies of the pancreas. In: Carey LC (ed) The pancreas. CV Mosby, St Louis, pp404–42 7Google Scholar
  67. Razi M (1966) Ectopic pancreatic tissue of esophagus with massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Arch Surg 92:101–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rienhoff WF Jr, Pickrell KL (1945) Pancreatitis: An anatomic study of the pancreatic and extrapancreatic biliary systems. Arch Surg 51:205–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Robson HN, Scott GBD (1953) Lipomatous pseudohypertrophy of the pancreas. Gastroenterology 23:74–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Rokitansky C (1849) A manual of pathological anatomy, vol. 2, translated by Sieveking E. The Sydenham Society, London, pl77Google Scholar
  71. Salm R (1960) Scirrhous adenocarcinoma arising in a lipomatous pseudohypertrophic pancreas. J Pathol Bact 79:47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Salm R (1968) Carcinoma arising in a lipomatous pseudohypertrophic pancreas. Br Med J III:293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Satake K, Uchima K, Yamashita K, Yashimota T, Umeyama K (1979) Pancreatic cystadenoma of the spleen. Am J Surg 137:670–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schaefer JH (1926) The normal weight of the pancreas in the adult human being; a biometric study. Anat Rec 32:119–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schmitz-Moormann P, Himmelmann GW, Brandes J-W, Folsch UR, Loremz-Meyer H, Malchow H, Sochendra LN, Weinbeck M (1985) Comparative radiological and morphological study of human pancreas. Pancreatitis like changes in postmortem ductograms and their morphological pattern. Possible implications for ERCP. Gut 26:406–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schulz DM, Giordano DA, Schulz DH (1962) Weights of organs of fetuses and infants. Arch Pathol 74:244–2 50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Seidelin H (1912–13) Carcinoma of jejunum from aberrant pancreas germ. J Pathol Bact 17:428Google Scholar
  78. Shillitoe AJ, Wilson JE (1957) Enterogenous cyst of thorax with pancreatic tissue as a constituent. J Thoracic Surg 34:810–814Google Scholar
  79. Shwachman H, Diamond LK, Oski FA, Khaw K-T (1964) The syndrome of pancreatic insufficiency and bone marrow dysfunction. J Pediatr 65:645–663PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Singh I (1956) Observation on the mode of termination of the bile and pancreatic ducts: anatomical factors in pancreatitis. J Anat Soc India 5:54–60Google Scholar
  81. Stept LA, Johnson SH, MarshaU M Jr, Price SE Jr (1971) Intrarenal pancreatic disease. J Urol 106:15–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Stewart MJ, Taylor AL (1925) Adenomyoma of the stomach. J Pathol Bact 28:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Thorsness ET (1940) An aberrant pancreatic nodule arising on the neck of a human gall bladder from multiple outgrowths of the mucosa. Anat Rec 77:319–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Walters MN-I (1966) Adipose tissue of the exocrine pancreas. J Pathol Bact 92:547–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Warkany J (19 71) Congenital malformations. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, pp 729–735Google Scholar
  86. Warkany J, Passarge E, Smith LB (1966) Congenital malformations in autosomal trisomy syndromes. Am J Dis Child 112:502–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Weber CM, Zito PF, Becker SM (1968) Heterotopic pancreas: An unusual cause of obstruction of the common bile duct. Am J Gastroenterol 49:153–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Weidman FD (1913) Aberrant pancreas in the splenic capsule. Anat Rec 7:133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wheelock MC, Atkinson AJ, Teloh HA (1949) Case report: Aberrant pancreatic tissue in the stomach wall. Gastroenterology 13:594–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Willis RA (1960) Pathology of tumours, 3rd edn. Butterworths, London, pp 960–961Google Scholar
  91. Willis RA (1962) The borderland of embryology and pathology, 2nd edn. Butterworths, London, pp 295, 327–329Google Scholar
  92. Zak FG (1956) Aberrant pancreatic carcinoma in jejunal diverticulum. Gastroenterology 30:529–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Zarling EJ (1981) Gastric adenomyoma with coincidental pancreatic rest: a case report. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 27:175–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. H. Cruickshank
    • 1
  1. 1.LiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations