Prior to the advent of CT and sonography the delineation of anatomical structures and their relationship to pathological processes in the retroperitoneal region was extremely difficult. Adequate assessment of the retroperitoneal area often required the use of multiple, difficult, and invasive procedures and involved a high radiation dose. These procedures included excretory urography with nephrotomography, angiography, venography, lymphangiography, and retroperitoneal carbon dioxide insufflation. Although sonography is an excellent noninvasive modality to delineate the retroperitoneum of the upper abdomen and lower pelvis, it has the disadvantage of not being able to assess adequately the retroperitoneum of the mid abdomen and upper pelvis because of overlying bowel gas in many patients.
KeywordsSuperior Mesenteric Artery Inferior Vena Renal Vein Left Renal Vein Psoas Muscle
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