The clinical syndrome of cardiac failure has long been recognised, but its management remains one of the major problems in clinical cardiology. About one-quarter of patients with cardiovascular disease have heart failure and the long-term prognosis is determined by the degree to which cardiac performance is impaired (Klainer et al. 1965). Recent innovations in the investigation of cardiac patients have increased our understanding of the mechanism of cardiac failure and aided the development of a logical approach to its long-term management.
KeywordsAngiotensin Cardiomyopathy Catecholamine Cardiol Theophylline
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