Advertisement

Time Issues in Advanced Workflow Management Applications of Active Databases

  • Heinrich Jasper
  • Olaf Zukunft
  • Helge Behrends
Conference paper
Part of the Workshops in Computing book series (WORKSHOPS COMP.)

Abstract

Workflow management systems schedule tasks in accordance with previously known process types. Additionally, advanced workflow applications have to deal with parametric processes and exceptional situations. Using active database technology to implement such applications results in mature demands for their respective time handling capabilities. This regards both, the possibilities of time specification as well as a sophisticated time management within the rule execution mechanism.

In this paper we examine necessary time handling potentials for active databases in order to implement advanced workflow. To do so, the ontologies of advanced workflow and corresponding time structures are introduced. We will tackle the problems that occur when implementing advanced workflow, especially predictive and reactive scheduling, synchronisation and recovery in the active database settings. It will turn out that techniques fulfilling soft real-time requirements are sufficient.

Keywords

Time Event Coupling Mode Transaction Model Reference Event Active Database 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    R. Abbott and H. Garcia-Molina. Scheduling real-time transactions with disk-resident data. In Proc. Intl. Conf. on Very Large Data Bases, pages 385–396, Amsterdam, Netherland, 1989.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    R. K. Abbott and H. Garcia-Molina. Scheduling real-time transactions: A performance evaluation. TODS, 17(3):513–560, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    J. F. Allen. Towards a general theory of action and time. Artificial Intelligence, 23(2):123–154, July 1984.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    H. Behrends. Beschreibung ereignisgesteuerter Aktivitäten in datenbankgestützten Informationssystemen. PhD thesis, Universität Oldenburg, To appear, 1995.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    H. Branding, A. Buchmann, T. Kudrass, and J. Zimmermann. Rules in an open system: The REACH rule system. In First Intl. Workshop on Rules in Database Systems, Edinburgh, 1993.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    A. Buchmann, M. Tamer Özsu, M. Hornick, D. Georgakopoulos, and F. A. Manola. A transaction model for active distributed object systems. In A. K. Elmagarmid, editor, Database Transaction Models for Advanced Applications, chapter 5. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1992.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    A. Buchmann, J. Zimmermann, J. A. Blakeley, and D. L. Wells. Building an integrated active OODBMS: Requirements, architecture, and design decisions. In Proc. 11th Intl. Conf. on Data Engineering (ICDE 95), Taipei, Taiwan, 1995.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    S. Chakravarthy, B. Blaustein, A. Buchmann, M. Carey, U. Dayal, D. Goldhirsch, M. Hsu, R. Jauhari, R. Ladin, M. Livny, D. McCarthy, R. McKee, and A. Rosenthal. HiPAC: A research project in active time-constrained database management—final report. Technical Report XAIT-89–02, XEROX, 1989.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    S. Chakravarthy, V. Krishnaprasad, E. Anwar, and S.-K. Kim. Composite events for active databases: Semantics, contexts and detection. In Proc. 20th Intl. Conf. on Very Large Data Bases (VLDB 94), Santiago, Chile, 1994.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    E. M. Clarke, E. A. Emerson, and A. P. Sistla. Automatic verification of finite-state concurrent systems using temporal logic specifications. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, 8, 1986.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    U. Dayal, M. Hsu, and R. Ladin. Organizing long-running activities with triggers and transactions. In Proc. Intl. Conf. on Management of Data (SIGMOD), pages 204–214, Atlantic City, NJ, 1990.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    U. Dayal, M. Hsu, and R. Ladin. A transactional model for long-running activities. In Proc. Intl. Conf. on Very Large Data Bases, pages 113–122, Barcelona, Spain, 1991.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    U. Dayal and M.-C. Shan. Issues in operation flow management for longrunning activities. Bulletin of the Technical Committee on Data Engineering, 16:41–44, 1993.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    U. Dayal et al. The HiPAC project: Combining active databases and timing constraints. SIGMOD Record, 17:51–70, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    K. R. Dittrich and S. Gatziu. Time issues in active database systems. In R. Snodgrass, editor, Proc. of the ARPA/NSF Intl. Workshop, on an Infrastructure for Temporal Databases, pages K1–K6, Arlington, Texas, 1993.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    A. K. Elmagarmid, editor. Database Transaction Models for Advanced Applications. Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, 1992.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    M. Garey and D. Johnson. Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness. W.H. Freeman, 1979.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    S. Gatziu and K. R. Dittrich. Detecting composite events in active database systems using petri nets. In Proc. 4. Intl. Workshop on Research Issues in Data Engineering, pages 2–9, Houston, USA 1994.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    N. Gehani and H. V. Jagadish. Ode as an active database: Constraints and triggers. In Proc. Intl. Conf. on Very Large Data Bases, pages 327–336, Barcelona, Spain, 1991.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    D. Georgakopoulos, M. Hornick, and A. Sheth. An overview of workflow mangement: Prom process modeling to workflow automation infrastructure. Distributed and Parallel Databases, sept 1994.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    K. Hadavi, W.-L. Hsu, T. Chen, and C.-N. Lee. An architecture for realtime distributed scheduling. AI Magazine, 13(3), 1992.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    T. Haerder and A. Reuter. Principles of transaction-oriented database recovery. Computing Surveys, 15:287–317, 1983.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    D. Hong, T. Johnson, and S. Chakravarthy. Real-time transaction scheduling: A cost conscious approach. Technical Report UF-CIS-TR-92-043, University of Florida, 1992.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    M. Hsu, R. Ladin, and D. McCarthy. An execution model for active data base management systems. In 3rd Intl. Conf. on Data and Knowledge Bases 1988, pages 171–179, Jerusalem, Israel, 1988.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    M. Hsu (Editor). Special issue on workflow and extended transaction systems. Bulletin of the Technical Committee on Data Engineering, 16(2), 1993.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    H. Jasper. Time issues in active databases (in german). In OFFIS Time-Kolloquium, Oldenburg, Germany, 1993.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    H. Jasper. Active databases for active repositories. In Proc. 10. Intl. Conference on Data Engineering, pages 375–384, Houston, USA, 1994.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    C. S. Jensen, J. Clifford, R. Elmasri, S. K. Gadia, P. Hayes, and S. Jajodia (Eds.). A consensus glossary of temporal database concepts. SIGMOD Record, 23(1):52–64, 1994.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    N. P. Keng, D. Y. Y. Yun, and M. Rossi. Interaction-sensitive planning system for job-shop-scheduling. In M.D. Oliff, editor, Proc. Intl. Conf. on Expert Systems and Intelligent Manufacturing, pages 57–69, 1988.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Medina-Mora, R., Winograd, T., Flores, R., and Flores, F. The action workflow approach to workflow management technology. In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW’92), Emerging technologies for cooperative work, pages 281–288, Toronto, Ontario, 1992. ACM Press.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    OMG. Common Object Services Specification, Volume J, first edition, 1994.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Open Software Foundation. Introduction to OSF DCE. Open Software Foundation, Cambridge, USA, 1992.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    K. Ramamritham. Real-time databases. International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Databases, 1992.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Yoav Shoham. Reasoning about Change. MIT Press, Massachusetts, first edition, 1988.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    R. T. Snodgrass et al. TSQL2 language specification. Sigmod Record, 23(1):65–86, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    J. A. Stankovic. Real-time computing systems: The next generation. In J. A. Stankovic, editor, Hard Real-Time Systems. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    X/Open. X/Open Distributed Transaction Processing. X/Open Ltd., Reading, Berkshire, England, 1992.Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    O. Zukunft. Recovering Active Databases. Technical Report TR-IS-AIS-01-95, Universität Oldenburg, 1995.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© British Computer Society 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinrich Jasper
    • 1
  • Olaf Zukunft
    • 1
  • Helge Behrends
    • 1
  1. 1.Fachbereich InformatikUniversität OldenburgOldenburgGermany

Personalised recommendations