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Activation of Inflammatory Circulating Factors by Intermittent Hypoxia in Sleep Apnea Syndrome

  • Larissa DyugovskayaEmail author
  • Andrey Polyakov
Chapter

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), characterized by intermittent and recurrent pauses in respiration during sleep, constitutes an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is the hallmark of OSAS. A large number of clinical studies, cell culture, and animal models utilizing IH delineate the central role of oxidative stress in OSAS. These facilitate increased interactions of blood leukocytes with endothelial cells, resulting in endothelial injury and dysfunction. Such events can promote the development of cardiovascular morbidities in OSAS. IH can activate several global signaling pathways and various transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, which play a key role in mediating the inflammatory and cardiovascular consequences in OSAS. This chapter summarized the current literature and our own data on phenotype, functional changes, and inflammatory responses of various blood cells exposed to IH in vivo and in vitro. We focus on the causal relationships between IH and atherogenic transformation of monocytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in OSAS patients and on the molecular mechanisms of the cell dysfunctions developed under IH conditions.

Keywords

Reactive Oxygen Species Production Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Intermittent Hypoxia Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Patient Neutrophil Apoptosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

OSAS

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

IH

Intermittent hypoxia

nCPAP

Nasal continuous positive air pressure

HIF

Hypoxia-inducible factor

AHI

Apnea-hypopnea index

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

ECs

Endothelial cells

EPO

Erythropoietin

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

DCs

Dendritic cells

Ox-LDL

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein

PMA

Phorbol myristate acetate

HUVEC

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells

HCAEC

Human coronary artery endothelial cells

NA

Neutrophil apoptosis

IHD

Ischemic heart disease

TNF

Tumor necrotic factor

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Prof. Peretz Lavie for his helpful comments and suggestions. We are also indebted to Prof. Lena Lavie for her constructive comments and criticism.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Lloyd Rigler Sleep Apnea Research Laboratory, Unit of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of MedicineTechnion-Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael

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