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Protective Effects of Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

  • Huang-Tian YangEmail author
  • Yi Zhang
  • Zhi-Hua Wang
  • Zhao-Nian Zhou
Chapter

Abstract

Accumulated evidence has shown that adaptation to chronic hypobaric intermittent hypoxia (IH) increases myocardial tolerance to the subsequent severe hypoxia, Ca2+ overload, or ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Attractively, this form of protection is noninvasive, persists longer than ischemic preconditioning, and has less side effects such as right ventricular hypertrophy compared with the chronic continuous hypoxia. The cardioprotective effects are largely dependent on the degree and duration of IH. Therefore, to identify suitable cycle length, the number of hypoxic episodes per day, degree, and duration of chronic hypobaric IH is important for clinical application. In addition, elucidation of the mechanisms underlying chronic IH-induced cardioprotection is of basic and clinical importance. To address these issues, this chapter focuses primarily on the cardioprotective effects of chronic hypobaric IH in the improvement of myocardial contractile dysfunction and in the reduction of arrhythmias due to Ca2+ overload or I/R injury. The recent progresses in the understanding of the mechanisms, especially related to the cellular adaptation, are discussed. The knowledge we have got from this area should provide new insights into the understanding of the intrinsic defensive mechanism and have impact on the exploring of new therapeutic approaches in the protection of the heart against ischemic heart diseases and other stress.

Keywords

KATP Channel Cardioprotective Effect Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Intermittent Hypoxia Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AP

Action potential

APD

Action potential duration

AT1

Angiotensin II type 1

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

[Ca2+]i

Intracellular free Ca2+ concentration

CaMKII

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II

CF

Coronary flow

ERP

Effective refractory period

ET-1

Endothelin-1

GS I

Glycogen synthase I

KATP

ATP-sensitive potassium

HAH

High-altitude hypoxia

IH

Intermittent hypoxia

Ica-L

L-type calcium channel

INa/Ca

NCX currents

Ito

Outward potassium channel

IPC

Ischemic preconditioning

I/R

Ischemia/reperfusion

MPTP

Mitochondrial permeability transition pore

NCX

Na+/Ca2+ exchanger

OSA

Obstructive sleep apnea

PKA

Protein kinase A

PKC

Protein kinase C

PLB

Phospholamban

RP

Resting potential

RyR

Ryanodine receptor

SERCA2

Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase isoforms 2

SR

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

Notes

Acknowledgments

Some of the studies were supported partially by grants from Major State Basic Research Development Program of People’s Republic of China (2006CB504106; 2007CB512100) and Knowledge Innovation Program of the CAS (KSCX2-YW-R-75).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huang-Tian Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yi Zhang
    • 3
  • Zhi-Hua Wang
    • 1
  • Zhao-Nian Zhou
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS)Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTUSM)ShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Stem Cell BiologyShanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)ShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyHebei Medical UniversityShijiazhuangChina
  4. 4.Physiological Laboratory of HypoxiaSIBS, CASShanghaiChina

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