Hypoxicators: Review of the Operating Principles and Constructions

  • Viktor A. Lopata
  • Tatiana V. SerebrovskayaEmail author


Traditional treatment protocols for intermittent hypoxia training/therapy (IHT) comprises repeated exposures to low oxygen atmosphere breathing, altered with breathing ambient air. The rapid advance of IHT has led to the development of different medical equipment – hypoxicators – for its implementation in sport practice, military operations and also for clinical application. A variety of technical implementations for this treatment has been tested and used in recent decades, including hypobaric chambers, normobaric reduced oxygen rooms and mask-system hypoxicators, which produce hypoxic air in various ways. On the basis of hypoxicators classification, the overview of their design, medical and technical requirements is presented, and the perspectives of their development and industry trends are described as well as advantages and disadvantages of their operation.


Flow Circuit Simulated Altitude Respiratory Resistance Hypoxic Ventilatory Response Altitude Training 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Hypoxic gas mixture


Intermittent hypoxic training/treatment


  1. 1.
    Basovich SN, Sergeev PV, Strelkov RB. Breathing device for hypoxia creation. Inventors certificate 1335294, A61M 16/00. Patent USSR, 07.09.87. Bulletin # 33; 1987 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bassovitch O. Breathing apparatus for hypoxic pre-acclimatization and training. Patent Application Publication US 2006/0130639 A1, A62B 7/10, A62B 23/02. 22 June 2006.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berezovski VA, Deinega VG, Zhuravlenko VJa et al. Device for climatotherapy. Inventors certificate 1526688, A 61 G, 10/00 Patent USSR, 7 Dec 1989. Bulletin #45; 1989 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berezovski VA, Levashov MI. Introduction in orotherapy. Kiev: APG; 2000 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berezovski VA, Rozhanchuk VN, Puh NN et al. Equipment for climatotherapy. Inventors certificate 1801440, A61G 10/00. 15 Mar 1993. Bulletin #10; 1993 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Henkin ML. Breathing method and apparatus simulating high altitude conditions. US Patent 4,334,533, A62B 7/10. 15 June 1982.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kalakutski LI, Polyakov VA. Equipment for hypercapnic – hypoxic therapy. See (1996) [In Russian].
  8. 8.
    Karash YuM, Strelkov RB, Chizhov AYu. Normobaric hypoxia in treatment, prophylaxis, and rehabilitation. Moscow: Meditsina; 1988 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kolchinskaya A, Hatsukov B, Zakusilo M. Oxygen insufficiency – destructive and constructive action. Nalchik; 1999. p. 208.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Korkushko OV, Serebrovskaya TV, Shatilo VB et al. Selection of the optimal modes for intermittent hypoxia training in medical practice and sports medicine. Methodical recommendations. Kiev; 2010 [In Ukrainian].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lopata VO, Berezovs’kyĭ VIa, Levashov MI, et al. Classification and review of technical devices for hypoxia therapy. Fiziol Zh. 2003;49:100–5 [In Ukrainian].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lysenko GI, Serebrovskaya TV, Karaban IN, et al. Use of the method of gradually increasing normobaric hypoxia in medical practice. Methodical recommendations. Kiev: Ukrainian Ministry of Health Care; 1998 [In Ukrainian].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nemerovski LI. Construction principles of apparatus for intermittent normobaric hypoxia. Med Technika. 1992;1:3–8 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Orotherapy. Lectures of academy of hypoxia problems. Logos; 1998 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reiderman EN, Trushin AI, Nemerovski LI et al. Device for breathing of hypoxic mixtures. Inventors certificate 1456161, A61M 16/00. Patent USSR, 7 Feb 1989. Bulletin #5; 1989 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sakharchuk II, Denisenko GT, Serebrovskaya TV et al. Use of device “Hypotron” for prophylaxis and treatment of diseases in the conditions of radiation contamination. Methodical recommendations. Kiev; 1993 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Samolovov JuI, Strelkov RB. Breathing apparatus for hypoxytherapy. Inventors certificate 1599026, A61M 16/00. Patent USSR, 15 Oct 1990. Bulletin #38; 1990 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Scherbakova GN, Shnirev AP, Ksenofontov MI. Hypoxicator Inventors certificate 2167677, A61M 16/00. Patent USSR, Bulletin #15; 2001 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Serebrovska TV. Method for nonspecific body resistance increasing by means of intermittent hypoxic influences “Hypotron”. Author’s certificate PA #32, 6 Dec 1995 [In Ukrainian].Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Serebrovska TV, Lopata VA, Roy VV et al. Device for breathing with hypoxic mixtures “Hypoxytron”. Patent #44179, MПК A61M 16/00, Ukraine, 25 Sep 2009, Bulletin #18; 2009 [In Ukrainian].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Serebrovskaya T, Lopata V. Apparatus for breathing with hypoxic gaseous mixtures. Patent international application to all countries of PCT; PCT/UA 2010/000071, 7 Oct 2010, Completion of written opinion on 9 Mar 2011.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Serebrovskaya TV, Roitman EM, Lopata VA et al. Device for breathing with hypoxic mixtures “Hypoxydoz”. Patent of the Ukraine #57257A, application #2002054442, 16 June 2003, Bulletin #6; 2003 [In Ukrainian].Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Serebrovskaya TV. Intermittent hypoxia research in the former soviet union and the commonwealth of independent States (CIS): history and review of the concept and selected applications. High Alt Med Biol. 2002;3:205–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Slipchenko VG, Serebrovskaya TV, Sakcharchuk II et al. Mode of nonspecific body resistance improvement. Patent USSR #179958, A61M 16.00, 7 Mar 1993 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Slipchenko VG, Shulzhenko OF, Denisenko GT et al. Device for breathing with hypoxic mixtures “Hypotron”. Author’s certificate 45082 A, A61M16/00. 15 Mar 2002, Bulletin #3; 2002 [In Ukrainian].Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smirnov VF, Kamenev EA, Feldfebeleva GK. Breather. Inventors certificate 1526699, A61M 16/00. Patent USSR, 7 Dec 1989, Bulletin #45; 1989 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Stepanov SL. Breather for hypoxia creation. Inventors certificate 2070064, A61M 16/00. Patent USSR, 10 Dec 1996, Bulletin #34; 1996 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Strelkov RB, Chizhov AJa. Normobaric hypoxitherapy and hypoxiradiotherapy. Moscow: Nauka; 1998 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Strelkov RB. Normobaric hypoxia. Medical recommendations. Moscow; 1994 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Strelkov VB. Strelkov’s breather. Patent 2040279, A61M 16/00. Patent USSR, 27 Jul 1995, Bulletin #21; 1995 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tkachouk EN, Tsyganova TN, Staebler R. Apparatus for producing a hypoxic gaseous mixture using hollow fibers of poly-4-methil-penthene-1. US Patent 5,383,448, A62B 7/10, 24 Jan 1995.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tsyganova TN, Egorova EB. Interval hypoxic training in obstetric and gynecologic practice. Methodical recommendations. Moscow; 1993 [In Russian].Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wartman R, Stiney M, Bower E et al. Reduced oxygen breathing device. US Patent 6,871,645 B2, A61M 16/00. 29 Mar 2005.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xi L, Serebrovskaya TV. Intermittent hypoxia: from molecular mechanisms to clinical applications. New York: Nova Science Publishers Inc; 2009.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zuev EG. Device for treatment and prophylaxis of respiration and circulation organs. Inventors certificate 1607817, A61M 16/00. Patent USSR, 23 Nov 1990, Bulletin #43; 1990 [In Russian].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hypoxia, Bogomoletz Institute of PhysiologyNational Academy of Sciences of UkraineKievUkraine

Personalised recommendations