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Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Cardiac Arrhythmias: Role of Intermittent Hypoxia

  • Thomas BitterEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Focusing on the role of intermittent hypoxia, this chapter intends to describe the association between sleep-disordered breathing and cardiac arrhythmias in specific. By showing pathophysiologies of different types of sleep-disordered breathing, we try to give an understanding of why sleep apnea is a common phenomenon among cardiac patients. Moreover, this chapter is intended to point out cardiovascular consequences and mechanisms, which are involved in an enhanced myocardial irritability and predispose patients with evident sleep-disordered breathing to suffer from cardiac arrhythmias. We thereby especially focus on intermittent hypoxia and its major role in the proarrhythmia pathological process. Finally, translating evidences from bench to bedside, we present clinical data that elucidate associations between sleep-disordered breathing and ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, or conduction disturbances.

Keywords

Atrial Fibrillation Obstructive Sleep Apnea Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Sudden Cardiac Death Heart Failure Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

Afib

Atrial fibrillation

AHI

Apnea-hypopnea index

BMI

Body mass index

CI

Cardiac index

CPAP

Continuous positive airway pressure

CRP

C-reactive protein

CSA

Central sleep apnea

CSR

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

LAD

Left atrial diameter

LVEDD

Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter

NO

Nitric oxide

NREM

Non-rapid eye movement

NT-proBNP

N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide

NYHA

New York Heart Association

OSA

Obstructive sleep apnea

PAP

Pulmonary artery pressure

pCO2

Partial pressure of carbon dioxide

PCWP

Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

PG

Cardiorespiratory polygraphy

pO2

Partial pressure of oxygen

PSG

Cardiorespiratory polysomnography

PV

Pulmonary vein

PVI

Pulmonary vein isolation

RAAS

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

REM

Rapid eye movement

RFCA

Radiofrequency catheter ablation

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SCD

Sudden cardiac death

SDB

Sleep-disordered breathing

SR

Sinus rhythm

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cardiology, Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-WestphaliaRuhr University BochumBad OeynhausenGermany

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