Clinical Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Lower Extremity Venous Disorder



A number of patient historical risk factors can influence the development of superficial venous disease. Among those considered to be of fairly certain significance are: family history, age, pregnancy, and female gender [1]. Other factors of probable significance are: occupation requiring prolonged standing, obesity, physical activity involving heavy straining (exaggerated Valsalva’s maneuver), sedentary occupation and/or lifestyle, neuromuscular disorder causing foot/calf muscle pump impairment, history of leg trauma, history of deep vein thrombosis, and connective tissue laxity [2, 3].


Venous Disease Venous Hypertension Venous Insufficiency Chronic Venous Insufficiency Prolonged Standing 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Weill Cornell Vascular, Weill Medical College of Cornell UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Morrison Vein InstituteScottsdaleUSA

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