A Framework for Studying Cognitive Impairment to Inform Inclusive Design
Cognitive impairment is an exceptionally complicated phenomenon, for which no simple solutions exist. There is no unified definition of what constitutes cognitive impairment and the terminology is varied. There is no uniform pattern of impairment occurring with any one medical condition and individual differences are significant: the same disease can affect people in different ways and the same condition can cause diverse patterns of impairment in different individuals. Some medical conditions causing cognitive impairment are chronic, others progressive, which adds to the difficulty of assessing their impact. In addition, the co-morbidity of certain medical conditions causes unexpected patterns of impairment. With certain conditions, such as brain injury, the impact of the impairment depends entirely on the location and extent of brain damage. (Groome et al., 2006) Furthermore, the number of people living with cognitive disability is growing due to population ageing and the improved survival rates for trauma patients (Ghajar, 2000; WHO, 2008). Neuropsychiatric illnesses and traumatic brain injury are among the leading causes of disability (WHO, 2008).
KeywordsDepression Migraine Dementia Schizophrenia Tuberculosis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- APA (1994) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Centre for Universal Design (1997) Universal design principles. Available at: http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/about_ud/udprinciples.htm. Accessed 21 Oct 2011
- Cohene T, Baecker R, Marziali E, Mindy S (2007) Memories of a life: a design case study for alzheimer’s disease. In: Lazar J (ed) Universal usability: designing computer interfaces for diverse users. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
- Groome D, Brace N, Dewart H, Edgar G, Edgar H, Esgate A et al (2006) An introduction to cognitive psychology. Processes and disorders, 2nd edn. Psychology Press, HoveGoogle Scholar
- Jokisuu E, Langdon PM, Clarkson PJ (2011) Modelling cognitive impairment to improve universal access. In: Stephanidis C (ed) 6th international conference on universal access in human-computer interaction (UAHCI 2011), Orlando, FL, USGoogle Scholar
- W3C (2008) Web content accessibility guidelines WCAG 2.0. Available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20/. Accessed 21 Oct 2011
- WHO (2001) International classification of functioning, disability and health. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- WHO (2007) International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th edn. Available at: http://www.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10. Accessed 21 Oct 2011
- WHO (2008) The global burden of disease: 2004 update. Available at: http://www.who.int/entity/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_full.pdf. Accessed 21 Oct 2011