The Role of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques

  • Pieter J. L. De Visschere
  • Gert O. De Meerleer
  • Nicolaas Lumen
  • Geert M. Villeirs


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an increasing role to play in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer but is also valuable in the noninvasive assessment of tumor aggressiveness, in treatment monitoring, and in the diagnosis of tumor recurrence. Although morphologic T2-weighted (T2W) MRI is an essential first step in the diagnostic evaluation of the prostate, additional functional techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can boost the diagnostic, staging, and grading performance of MRI beyond the limits of what is achievable with T2W imaging alone. They can be used separately or in combination in a so-called multimodality approach.


Prostate Cancer Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Diffusion Tensor Imaging Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Costello LC, Franklin RB. The intermediary metabolism of the prostate: a key to understanding the pathogenesis and progression of prostate malignancy. Oncology. 2000;59:269–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Costello LC, Franklin RB. The clinical relevance of the metabolism of prostate cancer; zinc and tumor suppression: connecting the dots. Mol Cancer. 2006;5:17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kavanagh JP. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, citrate and chloride content of human prostatic and seminal fluid. J Reprod Fertil. 1985;75:35–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Costello LC, Liu Y, Franklin RB, Kennedy MC. Zinc inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase and its importance in citrate metabolism of prostate epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:28875–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kahn T, Burrig K, Schmitz-Drager B, Lewin JS, Furst G, Modder U. Prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia: MR imaging with histopathologic correlation. Radiology. 1989;173:847–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schiebler ML, Tomaszewski JE, Bezzi M, et al. Prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia: correlation of high-resolution MR and histopathologic findings. Radiology. 1989;172:131–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Glunde K, Jacobs MA, Bhujwalla ZM. Choline metabolism in cancer: implications for diagnosis and therapy. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2006;6:821–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Glunde K, Ackerstaff E, Mori N, Jacobs MA, Bhujwalla ZM. Choline phospholipid metabolism in cancer: consequences for molecular pharmaceutical interventions. Mol Pharm. 2006;3:496–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Podo F. Tumour phospholipid metabolism. NMR Biomed. 1999;12:413–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ackerstaff E, Pflug BR, Nelson JB, Bhujwalla ZM. Detection of increased choline compounds with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy subsequent to malignant transformation of human prostatic epithelial cells. Cancer Res. 2001;61:3599–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Glunde K, Jie C, Bhujwalla ZM. Molecular causes of the aberrant choline phospholipid metabolism in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2004;64:4270–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shukla-Dave A, Hricak H, Moskowitz C, et al. Detection of prostate cancer with MR spectroscopic imaging: an expanded paradigm incorporating polyamines. Radiology. 2007;245:499–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    van der Graaf M, Schipper RG, Oosterhof GO, Schalken JA, Verhofstad AA, Heerschap A. Proton MR spectroscopy of prostatic tissue focused on the detection of spermine, a possible biomarker of malignant behavior in prostate cancer. MAGMA. 2000;10:153–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fuchsjager M, Shukla-Dave A, Akin O, Barentsz J, Hricak H. Prostate cancer imaging. Acta Radiol. 2008;49:107–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron D, Hricak H, Narayan P, Carroll P, Nelson SJ. Three-dimensional H-1 MR spectroscopic imaging of the in situ human prostate with high (0.24–0.7-cm3) spatial resolution. Radiology. 1996;198:795–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Scheenen TW, Klomp DW, Roll SA, Futterer JJ, Barentsz JO, Heerschap A. Fast acquisition-weighted three-dimensional proton MR spectroscopic imaging of the human prostate. Magn Reson Med. 2004;52:80–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Umbehr M, Bachmann LM, Held U, et al. Combined magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2009;55:575–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seitz M, Shukla-Dave A, Bjartell A, et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2009;55:801–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Klomp DW, Scheenen TW, Arteaga CS, van Asten J, Boer VO, Luijten PR. Detection of fully refocused polyamine spins in prostate cancer at 7 T. NMR Biomed. 2010. doi: 10.1002/nbm.1592.
  20. 20.
    Jung JA, Coakley FV, Vigneron DB, et al. Prostate depiction at endorectal MR spectroscopic imaging: investigation of a standardized evaluation system. Radiology. 2004;233:701–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Scheenen T, Fütterer J, Weiland E, et al. Discriminating cancer from noncancer tissue in the prostate by 3-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging: a prospective multicenter validation study. Invest Radiol. 2010. doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e3181f54081.
  22. 22.
    Testa C, Schiavina R, Lodi R, et al. Prostate cancer: sextant localization with MR imaging, MR spectroscopy, and 11C-choline PET/CT. Radiology. 2007;244:797–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Futterer JJ, Scheenen TW, Heijmink SW, et al. Standardized threshold approach using three-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in prostate cancer localization of the entire prostate. Invest Radiol. 2007;42:116–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sciarra A, Panebianco V, Ciccariello M, et al. Value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging for detecting prostate cancer foci in men with prior negative biopsy. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:1875–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Villeirs GM, Oosterlinck W, Vanherreweghe E, De Meerleer GO. A qualitative approach to combined magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Eur J Radiol. 2010;73:352–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yuen JS, Thng CH, Tan PH, et al. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy for the detection of tumor foci in men with prior negative transrectal ultrasound prostate biopsy. J Urol. 2004;171:1482–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zakian KL, Sircar K, Hricak H, et al. Correlation of proton MR spectroscopic imaging with Gleason score based on step-section pathologic analysis after radical prostatectomy. Radiology. 2005;234:804–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Futterer JJ, Heijmink SW, Scheenen TW, et al. Prostate cancer localization with dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging and proton MR spectroscopic imaging. Radiology. 2006;241:449–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Scheidler J, Hricak H, Vigneron DB, et al. Prostate cancer: localization with three-dimensional proton MR spectroscopic imaging – clinicopathologic study. Radiology. 1999;213:473–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wefer AE, Hricak H, Vigneron DB, et al. Sextant localization of prostate cancer: comparison of sextant biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with step section histology. J Urol. 2000;164:400–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang L, Mazaheri Y, Zhang J, Ishill NM, Kuroiwa K, Hricak H. Assessment of biologic aggressiveness of prostate cancer: correlation of MR signal intensity with Gleason grade after radical prostatectomy. Radiology. 2008;246:168–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shukla-Dave A, Hricak H, Kattan MW, et al. The utility of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy for predicting insignificant prostate cancer: an initial analysis. BJU Int. 2007;99:786–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Villeirs GM, De Meerleer GO, De Visschere PJ, Fonteyne VH, Verbaeys AC, Oosterlinck W. Combined magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in the assessment of high grade prostate carcinoma in patients with elevated PSA: a single-institution experience of 356 patients. Eur J Radiol. 2009. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2009.08.007.
  34. 34.
    Cellini N, Morganti AG, Mattiucci GC, et al. Analysis of intraprostatic failures in patients treated with hormonal therapy and radiotherapy: implications for conformal therapy planning. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;53:595–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hanks GE, Hanlon AL, Schultheiss TE, et al. Dose escalation with 3D conformal treatment: five year outcomes, treatment optimization, and future directions. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1998;41:501–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    De Meerleer G, Villeirs G, Bral S, et al. The magnetic resonance detected intraprostatic lesion in prostate cancer: planning and delivery of intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol. 2005;75:325–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Boersma LJ, van den Brink M, Bruce AM, et al. Estimation of the incidence of late bladder and rectum complications after high-dose (70-78 GY) conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer, using dose-volume histograms. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1998;41:83–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Michalski JM, Winter K, Purdy JA, et al. Toxicity after three-dimensional radiotherapy for prostate cancer with RTOG 9406 dose level IV. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;58:735–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pollack A, Zagars GK, Starkschall G, et al. Conventional vs. conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: preliminary results of dosimetry and acute toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1996;34:555–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ryu JK, Winter K, Michalski JM, et al. Interim report of toxicity from 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer on 3DOG/RTOG 9406, level III (79.2 Gy). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;54:1036–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Skwarchuk MW, Jackson A, Zelefsky MJ, et al. Late rectal toxicity after conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer (I): multivariate analysis and dose-response. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;47:103–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Menard C, Smith IC, Somorjai RL, et al. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the malignant prostate gland after radiotherapy: a histopathologic study of diagnostic validity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;50:317–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pucar D, Shukla-Dave A, Hricak H, et al. Prostate cancer: correlation of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy with pathologic findings after radiation therapy-initial experience. Radiology. 2005;236:545–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Coakley FV, Teh HS, Qayyum A, et al. Endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging for locally recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy: preliminary experience. Radiology. 2004;233:441–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pickett B, Kurhanewicz J, Coakley F, Shinohara K, Fein B, Roach 3rd M. Use of MRI and spectroscopy in evaluation of external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;60:1047–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pickett B, Ten Haken RK, Kurhanewicz J, et al. Time to metabolic atrophy after permanent prostate seed implantation based on magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2004;59:665–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rouviere O, Vitry T, Lyonnet D. Imaging of prostate cancer local recurrences: why and how? Eur Radiol. 2010;20:1254–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sciarra A, Panebianco V, Salciccia S, et al. Role of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in the detection of local recurrence after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2008;54:589–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, Hricak H, et al. Prostate cancer: metabolic response to cryosurgery as detected with 3D H-1 MR spectroscopic imaging. Radiology. 1996;200:489–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Parivar F, Hricak H, Shinohara K, et al. Detection of locally recurrent prostate cancer after cryosurgery: evaluation by transrectal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and three-dimensional proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Urology. 1996;48:594–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cirillo S, Petracchini M, D’Urso L, et al. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to monitor the prostate for residual disease or local cancer recurrence after transrectal high-intensity focused ultrasound. BJU Int. 2008;102:452–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Van As N, Charles-Edwards E, Jackson A, et al. Correlation of diffusion-weighted MRI with whole mount RP specimens. Br J Radiol. 2008;81:456–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kim JK, Jang YJ, Cho G. Multidisciplinary functional MR imaging for prostate cancer. Korean J Radiol. 2009;10:535–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mazaheri Y, Shukla-Dave A, Muellner A, Hricak H. MR imaging of the prostate in clinical practice. MAGMA. 2008;21:379–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Somford DM, Futterer JJ, Hambrock T, Barentsz JO. Diffusion and perfusion MR imaging of the prostate. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2008;16:685–95, ix.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sella T, Pucar D. Imaging recurrent prostate cancer. In: Hricak H, Scardino PT, editors. Contemporary issues in cancer imaging: prostate cancer. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2009. p. 195–222.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Katahira K, Takahara T, Kwee TC, et al. Ultra-high-b-value diffusion-weighted MR imaging for the detection of prostate cancer: evaluation in 201 cases with histopathological correlation. Eur Radiol. 2011;21:188–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kim CK, Park BK. Update of prostate magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2008;32:163–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kim CK, Park BK, Park W, Kim SS. Prostate MR imaging at 3 T using a phased-arrayed coil in predicting locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy: preliminary experience. Abdom Imaging. 2010;35:246–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    deSouza NM, Reinsberg SA, Scurr ED, Brewster JM, Payne GS. Magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer: the value of apparent diffusion coefficients for identifying malignant nodules. Br J Radiol. 2007;80:90–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Morgan VA, Kyriazi S, Ashley SE, deSouza NM. Evaluation of the potential of diffusion-weighted imaging in prostate cancer detection. Acta Radiol. 2007;48:695–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chen M, Dang HD, Wang JY, et al. Prostate cancer detection: comparison of T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, and the three techniques combined. Acta Radiol. 2008;49:602–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sato C, Naganawa S, Nakamura T, et al. Differentiation of noncancerous tissue and cancer lesions by apparent diffusion coefficient values in transition and peripheral zones of the prostate. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2005;21:258–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Haider MA, Chung P, Sweet J, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for localization of recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;70:425–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Yoshimitsu K, Kiyoshima K, Irie H, et al. Usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient map in diagnosing prostate carcinoma: correlation with stepwise histopathology. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;27:132–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kim CK, Choi D, Park BK, Kwon GY, Lim HK. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging for the evaluation of seminal vesicle invasion in prostate cancer: initial results. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;28:963–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Tamada T, Sone T, Jo Y, et al. Apparent diffusion coefficient values in peripheral and transition zones of the prostate: comparison between normal and malignant prostatic tissues and correlation with histologic grade. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;28:720–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zelhof B, Pickles M, Liney G, et al. Correlation of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance data with cellularity in prostate cancer. BJU. 2008;103:883–8.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gleason DF. Classification of prostatic carcinomas. Cancer Chemother Rep. 1966;50:125–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gleason DF, Mellinger GT. Prediction of prognosis for prostatic adenocarcinoma by combined histological grading and clinical staging. J Urol. 1974;111:58–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jeong IG, Kim JK, Cho KS, et al. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in patients with unilateral prostate cancer on extended prostate biopsy: predictive accuracy of laterality and implications for hemi-ablative therapy. J Urol. 2010;184:1963–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wang H, Fei B. Diffusion-weighted MRI for monitoring tumor response to photodynamic therapy. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2010;32:409–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nemoto K, Tateishi T, Ishidate T. Changes in diffusion-weighted images for visualizing prostate cancer during antiandrogen therapy: preliminary results. Urol Int. 2010;85:421–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kim CK, Park BK, Lee HM. Prediction of locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy: incremental value of 3 T diffusion-weighted MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;29:391–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kim CK, Park BK, Lee HM, Kim SS, Kim E. MRI techniques for prediction of local tumor progression after high-intensity focused ultrasonic ablation of prostate cancer. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190:1180–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Eiber M, Beer AJ, Holzapfel K, et al. Preliminary results for characterization of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer by diffusion-weighted MR-imaging. Invest Radiol. 2010;45:15–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Manenti G, Carlani M, Mancino S, et al. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer. Invest Radiol. 2007;42:412–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Takayama Y, Kishimoto R, Hanaoka S, et al. ADC value and diffusion tensor imaging of prostate cancer: changes in carbon-ion radiotherapy. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;27:1331–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Casciani E, Polettini E, Carmenini E, et al. Endorectal and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for detection of local recurrence after RP. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;190:1187–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ocak I, Bernardo M, Metzger G, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of prostate cancer at 3 T: a study of pharmacokinetic parameters. Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189:849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    McMahon CJ, Bloch BN, Lenkinski RE, Rofsky NM. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in the evaluation of patients with prostate cancer. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2009;17:363–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Franiel T, Hamm B, Hricak H. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and pharmacokinetic models in prostate cancer. Eur Radiol. 2010. doi: 10.1007/s00330-010-2037-7.
  83. 83.
    Noworolski SM, Henry RG, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in normal and abnormal prostate tissues as defined by biopsy, MRI, and 3D MRSI. Magn Reson Med. 2005;53:249–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vos PC, Hambrock T, van de Kaa Hulsbergen CA, Fütterer JJ, Barentsz JO, Huisman HJ. Computerized analysis of prostate lesions in the peripheral zone using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Med Phys. 2008;35:888–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fütterer JJ, Engelbrecht MR, Huisman HJ, et al. Staging prostate cancer with dynamic contrast-enhanced endorectal MR imaging prior to radical prostatectomy: experienced versus less experienced readers. Radiology. 2005;237:541–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bloch BN, Furman-Haran E, Helbich TH, et al. Prostate cancer: accurate determination of extracapsular extension with high-spatial-resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced and T2-weighted MR imaging – initial results. Radiology. 2007;245:176–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Engelbrecht MR, Huisman HJ, Laheij RJ, et al. Discrimination of prostate cancer from normal peripheral zone and central gland tissue by using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 2003;229:248–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kiessling F, Huber PE, Grobholz R, et al. Dynamic magnetic resonance tomography and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of prostate cancers in rats treated by radiotherapy. Invest Radiol. 2004;39:34–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cirillo S, Petracchini M, Scotti L, et al. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla to assess local recurrence following RP using T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced imaging. Eur Radiol. 2009;19:761–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pucar D, Hricak H, Shukla-Dave A, et al. Clinically significant prostate cancer local recurrence after radiation therapy occurs at the site of primary tumor: magnetic resonance imaging and step-section pathology evidence. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69:62–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rouviere O, Valette O, Grivolat S, et al. Recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiotherapy: value of contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI in localizing intraprostatic tumor–correlation with biopsy findings. Urology. 2004;63:922–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sheaff MT, Baithun SI. Effects of radiation on the normal prostate gland. Histopathology. 1997;30:341–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rouviere O, Girouin N, Glas L, et al. Prostate cancer transrectal HIFU ablation: detection of local recurrences using T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. Eur Radiol. 2010;20:48–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Vellet AD, Saliken J, Donnelly B, et al. Prostatic cryosurgery: use of MR imaging in evaluation of success and technical modifications. Radiology. 1997;203:653–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Donnelly SE, Donnelly BJ, Saliken JC, Raber EL, Vellet AD. Prostate cancer: gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging at 3 weeks compared with needle biopsy at 6 months after cryoablation. Radiology. 2004;232:830–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pieter J. L. De Visschere
    • 1
  • Gert O. De Meerleer
    • 2
  • Nicolaas Lumen
    • 3
  • Geert M. Villeirs
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, Division of Genitourinary RadiologyGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium
  3. 3.Department of UrologyGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations