Pancreatic Cancer

Chapter

Abstract

Pancreatic cancer is a fatal malignancy associated with rapid progression. One year relative survival rates are less than 30 %, and nearly all patients die from the disease within 7 years of surgery. It is estimated that 43,920 men and women will be diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and 37,390 will die of the disease in 2012. Although there have been improvements made in the diagnostic and prognosis of pancreatic cancer, these changes are minor. Smoking is the only established nonheritable risk factor for pancreatic cancer; however, only about 30 % of the cases can be attributed to smoking. Although results are inconclusive, obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption, and chronic pancreatitis have also been suggested as risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Given this poorly understood etiology, prevention of this deadly disease continues to remain a challenge.

Keywords

Pancreatic cancer Occupational risk factors Chemical production Metal manufacturing Solvents Molecular markers 

References

  1. 1.
    Garcea G, Dennison AR, Pattenden CJ, Neal CP, Sutton CD, Berry DP. Survival following curative resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. A systematic review of the literature. JOP. 2008;9(2):99–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2009 (Vintage 2009 Populations). Bethesda: National Cancer Institute. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2009_pops09/. Based on Nov 2011 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, Apr 2012.
  3. 3.
    David M, Lepage C, Jouve JL, et al. Management and prognosis of pancreatic cancer over a 30-year period. Br J Cancer. 2009;101(2):215–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Risch HA. Etiology of pancreatic cancer, with a hypothesis concerning the role of N-nitroso compounds and excess gastric acidity. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(13):948–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P. Epidemiologic and etiologic factors of pancreatic cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2002;16(1):1–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dunphy EP. Pancreatic cancer: a review and update. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2008;12(5):735–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pietri F, Clavel F. Occupational exposure and cancer of the pancreas: a review. Br J Ind Med. 1991;48(9):583–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Seilkop SK. Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med. 2001;58(1):63–4.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chiazze Jr L, Ference LD. Mortality among PVC-fabricating employees. Environ Health Perspect. 1981;41:137–43.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Decoufle P. Further analysis of cancer mortality patterns among workers exposed to cutting oil mists. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1978;61(4):1025–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hanis NM, Holmes TM, Shallenberger G, Jones KE. Epidemiologic study of refinery and chemical plant workers. J Occup Med. 1982;24(3):203–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li FP, Fraumeni Jr JF, Mantel N, Miller RW. Cancer mortality among chemists. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1969;43(5):1159–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Milham Jr S. Cancer mortality pattern associated with exposure to metals. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1976;271:243–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Williams RR, Stegens NL, Goldsmith JR. Associations of cancer site and type with occupation and industry from the Third National Cancer Survey Interview. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1977;59(4):1147–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Howe GR, Fraser D, Lindsay J, Presnal B, Yu SZ. Cancer mortality (1965-77) in relation to diesel fume and coal exposure in a cohort of retired railway workers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1983;70(6):1015–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rockette HE, Arena VC. Mortality studies of aluminum reduction plant workers: potroom and carbon department. J Occup Med. 1983;25(7):549–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Acheson ED, Gardner MJ, Winter PD, Bennett C. Cancer in a factory using amosite asbestos. Int J Epidemiol. 1984;13(1):3–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bond GG, Reeve GR, Ott MG, Waxweiler RJ. Mortality among a sample of chemical company employees. Am J Ind Med. 1985;7(2):109–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Decoufle P, Blattner WA, Blair A. Mortality among chemical workers exposed to benzene and other agents. Environ Res. 1983;30(1):16–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elinder CG, Kjellstrom T, Hogstedt C, Andersson K, Spang G. Cancer mortality of cadmium workers. Br J Ind Med. 1985;42(10):651–5.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lynge E. A follow-up study of cancer incidence among workers in manufacture of phenoxy herbicides in Denmark. Br J Cancer. 1985;52(2):259–70.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Milham Jr S. Mortality in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields. Environ Health Perspect. 1985;62:297–300.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ott MG, Carlo GL, Steinberg S, Bond GG. Mortality among employees engaged in chemical manufacturing and related activities. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;122(2):311–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vena JE, Sultz HA, Fiedler RC, Barnes RE. Mortality of workers in an automobile engine and parts manufacturing complex. Br J Ind Med. 1985;42(2):85–93.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wen CP, Tsai SP, Weiss NS, Gibson RL, Wong O, McClellan WA. Long-term mortality study of oil refinery workers. IV. Exposure to the lubricating-dewaxing process. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1985;74(1):11–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zoloth SR, Michaels DM, Villalbi JR, Lacher M. Patterns of mortality among commercial pressmen. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1986;76(6):1047–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Coggon D, Pannett B, Winter PD, Acheson ED, Bonsall J. Mortality of workers exposed to 2 methyl-4 chlorophenoxyacetic acid. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1986;12(5):448–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Boffetta P, Stellman SD, Garfinkel L. Diesel exhaust exposure and mortality among males in the American Cancer Society prospective study. Am J Ind Med. 1988;14(4):403–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Brown DP. Mortality of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls–an update. Arch Environ Health. 1987;42(6):333–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Enterline PE, Hartley J, Henderson V. Asbestos and cancer: a cohort followed up to death. Br J Ind Med. 1987;44(6):396–401.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hansen ES. Mortality of auto mechanics. A ten-year follow-up. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1989;15(1):43–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Silverstein M, Park R, Marmor M, Maizlish N, Mirer F. Mortality among bearing plant workers exposed to metalworking fluids and abrasives. J Occup Med. 1988;30(9):706–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Smulevich VB, Fedotova IV, Filatova VS. Increasing evidence of the rise of cancer in workers exposed to vinylchloride. Br J Ind Med. 1988;45(2):93–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wong O. An industry wide mortality study of chemical workers occupationally exposed to benzene. I. General results. Br J Ind Med. 1987;44(6):365–81.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Acquavella J, Leet T, Johnson G. Occupational experience and mortality among a cohort of metal components manufacturing workers. Epidemiology. 1993;4(5):428–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Benson LO, Teta MJ. Mortality due to pancreatic and lymphopoietic cancers in chlorohydrin production workers. Br J Ind Med. 1993;50(8):710–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Costantini AS, Paci E, Miligi L, Buiatti E, Martelli C, Lenzi S. Cancer mortality among workers in the Tuscan tanning industry. Br J Ind Med. 1989;46(6):384–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gardner MJ, Pannett B, Winter PD, Cruddas AM. A cohort study of workers exposed to formaldehyde in the British chemical industry: an update. Br J Ind Med. 1993;50(9):827–34.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gustavsson P, Reuterwall C. Mortality and incidence of cancer among Swedish gas workers. Br J Ind Med. 1990;47(3):169–74.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hearne FT, Pifer JW, Grose F. Absence of adverse mortality effects in workers exposed to methylene chloride: an update. J Occup Med. 1990;32(3):234–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lanes SF, Rothman KJ, Dreyer NA, Soden KJ. Mortality update of cellulose fiber production workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1993;19(6):426–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Langard S, Andersen A, Ravnestad J. Incidence of cancer among ferrochromium and ferrosilicon workers: an extended observation period. Br J Ind Med. 1990;47(1):14–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McDonald JC, Liddell FD, Dufresne A, McDonald AD. The 1891-1920 birth cohort of Quebec chrysotile miners and millers: mortality 1976-88. Br J Ind Med. 1993;50(12):1073–81.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Anttila A, Pukkala E, Sallmen M, Hernberg S, Hemminki K. Cancer incidence among Finnish workers exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons. J Occup Environ Med. 1995;37(7):797–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Asp S, Riihimaki V, Hernberg S, Pukkala E. Mortality and cancer morbidity of Finnish chlorophenoxy herbicide applicators: an 18-year prospective follow-up. Am J Ind Med. 1994;26(2):243–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Axelson O, Selden A, Andersson K, Hogstedt C. Updated and expanded Swedish cohort study on trichloroethylene and cancer risk. J Occup Med. 1994;36(5):556–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Baris D, Armstrong BG, Deadman J, Theriault G. A mortality study of electrical utility workers in Quebec. Occup Environ Med. 1996;53(1):25–31.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Boffetta P, Saracci R, Andersen A, et al. Cancer mortality among man-made vitreous fiber production workers. Epidemiology. 1997;8(3):259–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brown DP, Dement JM, Okun A. Mortality patterns among female and male chrysotile asbestos textile workers. J Occup Med. 1994;36(8):882–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Enterline PE, Day R, Marsh GM. Cancers related to exposure to arsenic at a copper smelter. Occup Environ Med. 1995;52(1):28–32.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gibbs GW, Amsel J, Soden K. A cohort mortality study of cellulose triacetate-fiber workers exposed to methylene chloride. J Occup Environ Med. 1996;38(7):693–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hansen J, Olsen JH. Formaldehyde and cancer morbidity among male employees in Denmark. Cancer Causes Control. 1995;6(4):354–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wong O, Trent LS, Whorton MD. An updated cohort mortality study of workers exposed to styrene in the reinforced plastics and composites industry. Occup Environ Med. 1994;51(6):386–96.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yassi A, Tate R, Fish D. Cancer mortality in workers employed at a transformer manufacturing plant. Am J Ind Med. 1994;25(3):425–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Alguacil J, Pollan M, Gustavsson P. Occupations with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in the Swedish population. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60(8):570–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Anttila A, Pukkala E, Riala R, Sallmen M, Hemminki K. Cancer incidence among Finnish workers exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1998;71(3):187–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cocco P, Blair A, Congia P, Saba G, Ecca AR, Palmas C. Long-term health effects of the occupational exposure to DDT. A preliminary report. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997;837:246–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cocco P, Hua F, Boffetta P, et al. Mortality of Italian lead smelter workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1997;23(1):15–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hooiveld M, Heederik DJ, Kogevinas M, et al. Second follow-up of a Dutch cohort occupationally exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and contaminants. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147(9):891–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jarup L, Bellander T, Hogstedt C, Spang G. Mortality and cancer incidence in Swedish battery workers exposed to cadmium and nickel. Occup Environ Med. 1998;55(11):755–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kogevinas M, Becher H, Benn T, et al. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and dioxins. An expanded and updated international cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;145(12):1061–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rafnsson V. Incidence of cancer among bookbinders, printers, photoengravers, and typesetters. Occup Environ Med. 2001;58(8):523–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sathiakumar N, Delzell E, Hovinga M, et al. Mortality from cancer and other causes of death among synthetic rubber workers. Occup Environ Med. 1998;55(4):230–5.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wiebelt H, Becker N. Mortality in a cohort of toluene exposed employees (rotogravure printing plant workers). J Occup Environ Med. 1999;41(12):1134–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Falk RT, Pickle LW, Fontham ET, et al. Occupation and pancreatic cancer risk in Louisiana. Am J Ind Med. 1990;18(5):565–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Garabrant DH, Held J, Langholz B, Peters JM, Mack TM. DDT and related compounds and risk of pancreatic cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992;84(10):764–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lin RS, Kessler II. A multifactorial model for pancreatic cancer in man. Epidemiologic evidence. JAMA. 1981;245(2):147–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mack TM, Peters JM, Yu MC, Hanisch R, Wright WE, Henderson BE. Pancreas cancer is unrelated to the workplace in Los Angeles. Am J Ind Med. 1985;7(3):253–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Magnani C, Coggon D, Osmond C, Acheson ED. Occupation and five cancers: a case-control study using death certificates. Br J Ind Med. 1987;44(11):769–76.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pickle LW, Gottlieb MS. Pancreatic cancer mortality in Louisiana. Am J Public Health. 1980;70(3):256–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pietri F, Clavel F, Auquier A, Flamant R. Occupational risk factors for cancer of the pancreas: a case-control study. Br J Ind Med. 1990;47(6):425–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mallin K, Rubin M, Joo E. Occupational cancer mortality in Illinois white and black males, 1979–1984, for seven cancer sites. Am J Ind Med. 1989;15(6):699–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Alguacil J, Porta M, Benavides FG, et al. Occupation and pancreatic cancer in Spain: a case-control study based on job titles. PANKRAS II Study Group. Int J Epidemiol. 2000;29(6):1004–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Alguacil J, Porta M, Malats N, et al. Occupational exposure to organic solvents and K-ras mutations in exocrine pancreatic cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23(1):101–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bardin JA, Eisen EA, Tolbert PE, et al. Mortality studies of machining fluid exposure in the automobile industry. V: a case-control study of pancreatic cancer. Am J Ind Med. 1997;32(3):240–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ji BT, Silverman DT, Dosemeci M, Dai Q, Gao YT, Blair A. Occupation and pancreatic cancer risk in Shanghai, China. Am J Ind Med. 1999;35(1):76–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kauppinen T, Partanen T, Degerth R, Ojajarvi A. Pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures. Epidemiology. 1995;6(5):498–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kernan GJ, Ji BT, Dosemeci M, Silverman DT, Balbus J, Zahm SH. Occupational risk factors for pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on death certificates from 24 U.S. states. Am J Ind Med. 1999;36(2):260–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mikoczy Z, Schutz A, Stromberg U, Hagmar L. Cancer incidence and specific occupational exposures in the Swedish leather tanning industry: a cohort based case-control study. Occup Environ Med. 1996;53(7):463–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Partanen T, Kauppinen T, Degerth R, et al. Pancreatic cancer in industrial branches and occupations in Finland. Am J Ind Med. 1994;25(6):851–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Selenskas S, Teta MJ, Vitale JN. Pancreatic cancer among workers processing synthetic resins. Am J Ind Med. 1995;28(3):385–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Zhang Y, Cantor KP, Lynch CF, Zhu Y, Zheng T. Occupation and risk of pancreatic cancer: a population-based case-control study in Iowa. J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47(4):392–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Santibanez M, Vioque J, Alguacil J, et al. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer. Eur J Epidemiol. 2010;25(10):721–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Milham S. Occupational mortality in Washington State, 1950–1989. Cincinnati, DHHS (NIOSH) publication No. 96–133, 1997, p. 56.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ojajarvi IA, Partanen TJ, Ahlbom A, et al. Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med. 2000;57(5):316–24.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Maruchi N, Brian D, Ludwig J, Elveback LR, Kurland LT. Cancer of the pancreas in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935–1974. Mayo Clin Proc. 1979;54(4):245–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lloyd JW, Decoufle P, Salvin LG. Unusual mortality experience of printing pressmen. J Occup Med. 1977;19(8):543–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wingren G, Persson B, Thoren K, Axelson O. Mortality pattern among pulp and paper mill workers in Sweden: a case-referent study. Am J Ind Med. 1991;20(6):769–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mastrangelo G, Fadda E, Marzia V. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cancer in man. Environ Health Perspect. 1996;104(11):1166–70.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Calvert GM, Ward E, Schnorr TM, Fine LJ. Cancer risks among workers exposed to metalworking fluids: a systematic review. Am J Ind Med. 1998;33(3):282–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Milham S. Occupational mortality in Washington State, 1950–1979. Washington, DC: US NIOSH publication No 83–116; 1983.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cantor KP, Silberman W. Mortality among aerial pesticide applicators and flight instructors: follow-up from 1965–1988. Am J Ind Med. 1999;36(2):239–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Porta M, Malats N, Jariod M, et al. Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and K-ras mutations in exocrine pancreatic cancer. PANKRAS II Study Group. Lancet. 1999;354(9196):2125–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hanley AJ, Johnson KC, Villeneuve PJ, Mao Y. Physical activity, anthropometric factors and risk of pancreatic cancer: results from the Canadian enhanced cancer surveillance system. Int J Cancer. 2001;94(1):140–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D. A prospective study of medical conditions, anthropometry, physical activity, and pancreatic cancer in male smokers (Finland). Cancer Causes Control. 2002;13(5):417–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Iodice S, Gandini S, Maisonneuve P, Lowenfels AB. Tobacco and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a review and meta-analysis. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2008;393(4):535–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lynch SM, Vrieling A, Lubin JH, et al. Cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170(4):403–13.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Brownson RC, Figgs LW, Caisley LE. Epidemiology of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Oncogene. 2002;21(48):7341–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gallicchio L, Kouzis A, Genkinger JM, et al. Active cigarette smoking, household passive smoke exposure, and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Prev Med. 2006;42(3):200–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Villeneuve PJ, Johnson KC, Mao Y, Hanley AJ. Environmental tobacco smoke and the risk of pancreatic cancer: findings from a Canadian population-based case-control study. Can J Public Health. 2004;95(1):32–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Tranah GJ, Holly EA, Wang F, Bracci PM. Cigarette, cigar and pipe smoking, passive smoke exposure, and risk of pancreatic cancer: a population-based study in the San Francisco Bay Area. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:138.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, vol. 96. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Alcohol consumption and ethyl carbamate.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Falk RT, Pickle LW, Fontham ET, Correa P, Fraumeni Jr JF. Life-style risk factors for pancreatic cancer in Louisiana: a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol. 1988;128(2):324–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Cuzick J, Babiker AG. Pancreatic cancer, alcohol, diabetes mellitus and gall-bladder disease. Int J Cancer. 1989;43(3):415–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Olsen GW, Mandel JS, Gibson RW, Wattenberg LW, Schuman LM. A case-control study of pancreatic cancer and cigarettes, alcohol, coffee and diet. Am J Public Health. 1989;79(8):1016–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hassan MM, Bondy ML, Wolff RA, et al. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: case-control study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102(12):2696–707.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Suzuki T, Matsuo K, Sawaki A, et al. Alcohol drinking and one-carbon metabolism-related gene polymorphisms on pancreatic cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(10):2742–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Talamini R, Polesel J, Gallus S, et al. Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study in Italy. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46(2):370–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Heuch I, Kvale G, Jacobsen BK, Bjelke E. Use of alcohol, tobacco and coffee, and risk of pancreatic cancer. Br J Cancer. 1983;48(5):637–43.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Zheng W, McLaughlin JK, Gridley G, et al. A cohort study of smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary factors for pancreatic cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control. 1993;4(5):477–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Harnack LJ, Anderson KE, Zheng W, Folsom AR, Sellers TA, Kushi LH. Smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea intake and incidence of cancer of the exocrine pancreas: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6(12):1081–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Heinen MM, Verhage BA, Ambergen TA, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA. Alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer in the Netherlands cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;169(10):1233–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Jiao L, Silverman DT, Schairer C, et al. Alcohol use and risk of pancreatic cancer: the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;169(9):1043–51.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Silverman DT, Brown LM, Hoover RN, et al. Alcohol and pancreatic cancer in blacks and whites in the United States. Cancer Res. 1995;55(21):4899–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lucenteforte E, La Vecchia C, Silverman D, et al. Alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Ann Oncol. 2012; 23(2):374–82.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    MacMahon B, Yen S, Trichopoulos D, Warren K, Nardi G. Coffee and cancer of the pancreas. N Engl J Med. 1981;304(11):630–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Turati F, Galeone C, Talamini R, et al. Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled-analysis of two Italian case-control studies. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011;20(4):287–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Dong J, Zou J, Yu XF. Coffee drinking and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17(9):1204–10.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington, DC: AICR; 2007. p. 211–42.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Mills PK, Beeson WL, Abbey DE, Fraser GE, Phillips RL. Dietary habits and past medical history as related to fatal pancreas cancer risk among Adventists. Cancer. 1988;61(12):2578–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Shibata A, Mack TM, Paganini-Hill A, Ross RK, Henderson BE. A prospective study of pancreatic cancer in the elderly. Int J Cancer. 1994;58(1):46–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Pietinen P, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D. Prospective study of diet and pancreatic cancer in male smokers. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155(9):783–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Silverman DT, Swanson CA, Gridley G, et al. Dietary and nutritional factors and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study based on direct interviews. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90(22):1710–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Nkondjock A, Krewski D, Johnson KC, Ghadirian P. Dietary patterns and risk of pancreatic cancer. Int J Cancer. 2005;114(5):817–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Chan JM, Wang F, Holly EA. Vegetable and fruit intake and pancreatic cancer in a population-based case-control study in the San Francisco bay area. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(9):2093–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Albanes D, Nieto FJ, et al. Pancreatic cancer risk and nutrition-related methyl-group availability indicators in male smokers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(6):535–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Howe GR, Ghadirian P, Bueno de Mesquita HB, et al. A collaborative case-control study of nutrient intake and pancreatic cancer within the search programme. Int J Cancer. 1992;51(3):365–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Zatonski W, Przewozniak K, Howe GR, Maisonneuve P, Walker AM, Boyle P. Nutritional factors and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study from south-west Poland. Int J Cancer. 1991;48(3):390–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Olsen GW, Mandel JS, Gibson RW, Wattenberg LW, Schuman LM. Nutrients and pancreatic cancer: a population-based case-control study. Cancer Causes Control. 1991;2(5):291–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nkondjock A, Ghadirian P, Johnson KC, Krewski D. Dietary intake of lycopene is associated with reduced pancreatic cancer risk. J Nutr. 2005;135(3):592–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gong Z, Holly EA, Wang F, Chan JM, Bracci PM. Intake of fatty acids and antioxidants and pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area. Int J Cancer. 2010;127(8):1893–904.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Larsson SC, Hakanson N, Permert J, Wolk A. Meat, fish, poultry and egg consumption in relation to risk of pancreatic cancer: a prospective study. Int J Cancer. 2006;118(11):2866–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Nothlings U, Wilkens LR, Murphy SP, Hankin JH, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN. Meat and fat intake as risk factors for pancreatic cancer: the multiethnic cohort study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005;97(19):1458–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Chan JM, Wang F, Holly EA. Pancreatic cancer, animal protein and dietary fat in a population-based study, San Francisco Bay Area, California. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18(10):1153–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Michaud DS, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Fuchs CS. Dietary meat, dairy products, fat, and cholesterol and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective study. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(12):1115–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Coughlin SS, Calle EE, Patel AV, Thun MJ. Predictors of pancreatic cancer mortality among a large cohort of United States adults. Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11(10):915–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Ben Q, Xu M, Ning X, et al. Diabetes mellitus and risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47:1928–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P, Cavallini G, et al. Pancreatitis and the risk of pancreatic cancer. International Pancreatitis Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(20):1433–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Freelove R, Walling AD. Pancreatic cancer: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2006;73(3):485–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lauwers GY, Mino-Kenudson M, Rubin R. The pancreas. In: Rubin R, Strayer D, editors. Rubin’s pathology: clinicopathologic foundations of medicine. 5th ed. Baltimore: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams& Wilkins; 2008.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Malesci A, Montorsi M, Mariani A, et al. Clinical utility of the serum CA 19-9 test for diagnosing pancreatic carcinoma in symptomatic patients: a prospective study. Pancreas. 1992;7(4):497–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Montgomery RC, Hoffman JP, Riley LB, Rogatko A, Ridge JA, Eisenberg BL. Prediction of recurrence and survival by post-resection CA 19-9 values in patients with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Ann Surg Oncol. 1997;4(7):551–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Koopmann J, Buckhaults P, Brown DA, et al. Serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 as a marker of pancreatic and other periampullary cancers. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10(7):2386–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Koopmann J, Rosenzweig CN, Zhang Z, et al. Serum markers in patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma: macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 versus CA19-9. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12(2):442–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Koopmann J, Fedarko NS, Jain A, et al. Evaluation of osteopontin as biomarker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(3):487–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Zhou W, Sokoll LJ, Bruzek DJ, et al. Identifying markers for pancreatic cancer by gene expression analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998;7(2):109–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Argani P, Iacobuzio-Donahue C, Ryu B, et al. Mesothelin is overexpressed in the vast majority of ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas: identification of a new pancreatic cancer marker by Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE). Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7(12):3862–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Chen R, Pan S, Cooke K, et al. Comparison of pancreas juice proteins from cancer versus pancreatitis using quantitative proteomic analysis. Pancreas. 2007;34(1):70–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Gronborg M, Bunkenborg J, Kristiansen TZ, et al. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human pancreatic juice. J Proteome Res. 2004;3(5):1042–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Rosty C, Goggins M. Early detection of pancreatic carcinoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2002;16(1):37–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hruban RH, Goggins M, Parsons J, Kern SE. Progression model for pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2000;6(8):2969–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Wilentz RE, Iacobuzio-Donahue CA, Argani P, et al. Loss of expression of Dpc4 in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia: evidence that DPC4 inactivation occurs late in neoplastic progression. Cancer Res. 2000;60(7):2002–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Mazaki T, Masuda H, Takayama T. Polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2011;20:169–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Almoguera C, Shibata D, Forrester K, Martin J, Arnheim N, Perucho M. Most human carcinomas of the exocrine pancreas contain mutant c-K-ras genes. Cell. 1988;53(4):549–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Aspinall RJ, Lemoine NR. Gene therapy for pancreatic and biliary malignancies. Ann Oncol. 1999;10 Suppl 4:188–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Schutte M, Hruban RH, Geradts J, et al. Abrogation of the Rb/p16 tumor-suppressive pathway in virtually all pancreatic carcinomas. Cancer Res. 1997;57(15):3126–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Cowgill SM, Muscarella P. The genetics of pancreatic cancer. Am J Surg. 2003;186(3):279–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Sohn TA, Yeo CJ. The molecular genetics of pancreatic ductal carcinoma: a review. Surg Oncol. 2000;9(3):95–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P. Epidemiology and risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2006;20(2):197–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Li D, Xie K, Wolff R, Abbruzzese JL. Pancreatic cancer. Lancet. 2004;363(9414):1049–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Jiao L, Bondy ML, Hassan MM, et al. Glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms and risk and survival of pancreatic cancer. Cancer. 2007;109(5):840–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Lee HC, Yoon YB, Kim CY. Association between genetic polymorphisms of the cytochromes P-450 (1A1, 2D6, and 2E1) and the susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. Korean J Intern Med. 1997;12(2):128–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Bartsch H, Malaveille C, Lowenfels AB, Maisonneuve P, Hautefeuille A, Boyle P. Genetic polymorphism of N-acetyltransferases, glutathione S-transferase M1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase in relation to malignant and benign pancreatic disease risk. The International Pancreatic Disease Study Group. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1998;7(3):215–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Liu G, Ghadirian P, Vesprini D, et al. Polymorphisms in GSTM1, GSTT1 and CYP1A1 and risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2000;82(10):1646–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Duell EJ, Holly EA, Bracci PM, Liu M, Wiencke JK, Kelsey KT. A population-based, case-control study of polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing genes, smoking, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94(4):297–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Ockenga J, Vogel A, Teich N, Keim V, Manns MP, Strassburg CP. UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A7) gene polymorphisms increase the risk of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterology. 2003;124(7):1802–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Piepoli A, Gentile A, Valvano MR, et al. Lack of association between UGT1A7, UGT1A9, ARP, SPINK1 and CFTR gene polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer in Italian patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12(39):6343–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Li D, Jiao L, Li Y, et al. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P4501A2 and N-acetyltransferase genes, smoking, and risk of pancreatic cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27(1):103–11.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Verlaan M, Drenth JP, Truninger K, et al. Polymorphisms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A7 are not involved in pancreatic diseases. J Med Genet. 2005;42(10):e62.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Vrana D, Pikhart H, Mohelnikova-Duchonova B, et al. The association between glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer in a central European Slavonic population. Mutat Res. 2009;680(1–2):78–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Jiao L, Bondy ML, Hassan MM, et al. Selected polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and risk of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Detect Prev. 2006;30(3):284–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Jiao L, Hassan MM, Bondy ML, et al. XRCC2 and XRCC3 gene polymorphism and risk of pancreatic cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103(2):360–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Jiao L, Hassan MM, Bondy ML, Abbruzzese JL, Evans DB, Li D. The XPD Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln polymorphisms, corresponding haplotype, and pancreatic cancer risk. Cancer Lett. 2007;245(1–2):61–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Duell EJ, Holly EA, Bracci PM, Wiencke JK, Kelsey KT. A population-based study of the Arg399Gln polymorphism in X-ray repair cross- complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 2002;62(16):4630–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    McWilliams RR, Bamlet WR, Cunningham JM, et al. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, smoking, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk. Cancer Res. 2008;68(12):4928–35.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Wang L, Lin DX, Lu XH, Miao XP, Li H. Polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XPC: relationship to pancreatic cancer risk. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2006;35(5):534–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Li D, Suzuki H, Liu B, et al. DNA repair gene polymorphisms and risk of pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15(2):740–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Reid-Lombardo KM, Fridley BL, Bamlet WR, Cunningham JM, Sarr MG, Petersen GM. Inflammation-related gene variants as risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20(6):1251–4.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Duell EJ, Casella DP, Burk RD, Kelsey KT, Holly EA. Inflammation, genetic polymorphisms in proinflammatory genes TNF-A, RANTES, and CCR5, and risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(4):726–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Miyasaka K, Kawanami T, Shimokata H, Ohta S, Funakoshi A. Inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 increased the risk of pancreatic cancer among smokers in a Japanese male population. Pancreas. 2005;30(2):95–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kanda J, Matsuo K, Suzuki T, et al. Impact of alcohol consumption with polymorphisms in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes on pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese. Cancer Sci. 2009;100(2): 296–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Li D, Ahmed M, Li Y, et al. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and the risk of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(6):1470–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Matsubayashi H, Skinner HG, Iacobuzio-Donahue C, et al. Pancreaticobiliary cancers with deficient methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3(8):752–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Wang L, Miao X, Tan W, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase and risk of pancreatic cancer. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3(8): 743–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Matsubayashi H, Fukushima N, Sato N, et al. Polymorphisms of SPINK1 N34S and CFTR in patients with sporadic and familial pancreatic cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2003;2(6):652–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Lempinen M, Paju A, Kemppainen E, et al. Mutations N34S and P55S of the SPINK1 gene in patients with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer and in healthy subjects: a report from Finland. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2005;40(2):225–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Teich N, Schulz HU, Witt H, Bohmig M, Keim V. N34S, a pancreatitis associated SPINK1 mutation, is not associated with sporadic pancreatic cancer. Pancreatology. 2003;3(1):67–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Dong X, Li Y, Chang P, et al. Glucose metabolism gene variants modulate the risk of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4(5):758–66.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Amundadottir L, Kraft P, Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies variants in the ABO locus associated with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. Nat Genet. 2009;41(9):986–90.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Petersen GM, Amundadottir L, Fuchs CS, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 13q22.1, 1q32.1 and 5p15.33. Nat Genet. 2010;42(3):224–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Abdominal Tumours SurgeryCenter of Pancreatic Tumours, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health SciencesYale University, School of Public HealthNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations