Intraprocedural Use of Echocardiography for TAVR

  • Jorge Castellanos
  • Raj Makkar
  • Hasan Jilaihawi
  • Robert J. Siegel


Since the advent of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in 2002, more than 20,000 bioprosthetic valves have been deployed in patients with severe aortic stenosis (Jilaihawi, Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 80(1):128–38, 2012). Long-term clinical outcomes data from TAVR underscore the importance of adequately measuring the aortic annulus and having the ability to clearly visualize the relationship between the bioprosthetic valve, the native aortic valve, and surrounding anatomic structures. The development of 3D echocardiography has facilitated the ability to correctly measure the aortic valve annulus in multiple planes and aid in the deployment of the bioprosthetic valve in the catheterization laboratory. This chapter will describe the strengths and limitations of 3D TEE in assessing the aortic valve annulus and any other associated cardiac structures during TAVR.


3D echocardiography 2D echocardiography TAVR Transcatheter aortic valve replacement Bioprosthetic valve 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jorge Castellanos
    • 1
  • Raj Makkar
    • 2
  • Hasan Jilaihawi
    • 2
  • Robert J. Siegel
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of CardiologyCedars Sinai Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyCedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyCedars Sinai Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA

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