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Relationships Between Body Fat and Bone Mass

  • Ian R. ReidEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Body weight impacts on both bone turnover and bone density and is therefore an important risk factor for vertebral and hip fractures, ranking in importance alongside that of age. The effect of body weight is probably contributed to by both fat mass and lean mass, though in postmenopausal women, fat mass has been more consistently demonstrated to be important. A number of mechanisms for the fat-bone relationship exist and include the effect of soft tissue mass on skeletal loading and the association of fat mass with the secretion of bone-active hormones from the ­pancreatic beta cell (including insulin, amylin, and preptin). Insulin circulates in increased concentrations in obesity and exerts anabolic effects on bone. The adipocyte is also an important source of factors that act as circulating regulators of bone metabolism. These include estrogens and the adipokines, leptin, and adiponectin. Leptin acts directly on bone cells, and in some experimental models, these effects are modified by its actions on the central nervous system, which impact on appetite, body weight, and insulin sensitivity. Adipokine levels correlate with bone turnover, suggesting that they dynamically influence bone metabolism. In postmenopausal women they may be among the principal regulators of bone turnover, accounting for their increasing importance as determinants of bone density with age. Of the adipokines, adiponectin appears to have the strongest relationships with bone parameters in postmenopausal women.

This area of research has provided important insights in bone biology. Its greatest importance, however, is to emphasize the critical role that weight maintenance plays in osteoporosis prevention.

Keywords

Adipose tissue Weight BMI Lean mass Insulin Leptin Amylin Adiponectin Visceral fat Multiple regression analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Supported by the Health Research Council of New Zealand

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicineUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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