Advertisement

Calcium Metabolism in Mexican American Adolescents

  • Cristina PalaciosEmail author
  • Connie M. Weaver
Chapter
  • 1.4k Downloads

Abstract

Hispanics are a growing segment of the US population and will soon comprise one-fourth of the population. Mexican Americans (MA) are the majority of Hispanics in the USA. MA have been reported in some studies to have significant differences in several health outcomes that could impact calcium metabolism. Determining racial differences is imperative as this information can then be used to make racial- and ethnic-specific recommendations for behavior changes to reduce risk of osteoporosis, particularly during adolescence, the period of rapid bone accumulation that accounts for up to half of adult peak bone mass. Calcium intake is critical for adequate bone mineralization and increases in calcium intake result in higher bone mass, which, if sustained, may result in a lower risk of osteoporotic bone fracture later in life. Determining the influence of calcium intake on calcium retention and bone metabolism requires metabolic studies on a range of calcium intakes. Here we describe metabolic studies conducted in MA, white, black, and Asian adolescents while consuming controlled diets with various levels of calcium intakes. Our results showed that Mexican American girls had higher calcium retention compared to white girls but similar to Asians and blacks. However, Mexican American boys had similar calcium retention compared to white, Asian, and black boys. Future work is needed to calculate the minimal calcium intake leading to the maximal calcium retention in this group, kinetic analysis, and multiple regression models to quantify the effects of calcium intake, race/ethnic group, sex, sexual maturity, body composition, and hormonal and bone biomarkers on calcium retention. Our results will allow us to determine if MA adolescents have different calcium needs compared to the other groups studied.

Keywords

Mexican American Calcium metabolism Calcium intake Calcium excretion Calcium retention Adolescents 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This study was supported by NIH grant # 5R01 HD061908-03

References

  1. 1.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Current Population Survey, March 2000 [machine-readable data file]. Washington: Bureau of the Census [producer and distributor], 2000.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tang H, Quertermous T, Rodriguez B, Kardia SL, Zhu X, Brown A, Pankow JS, Province MA, Hunt SC, Boerwinkle E, Schork NJ, Risch NJ. Genetic structure, self-identified race/ethnicity, and confounding in case–control association studies. Am J Hum Genet. 2005;76(2):268–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burchard EG, Ziv E, Coyle N, Gomez SL, Tang H, Karter AJ, Mountain JL, Perez-Stable EJ, Sheppard D, Risch N. The importance of race and ethnic background in biomedical research and clinical practice. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(12):1170–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parfitt AM. Genetic effects on bone mass and turnover-relevance to black/white differences. J Am Coll Nutr. 1997;16(4):325–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weaver CM, McCabe LD, McCabe GP, Novotny R, Van Loan M, Going S, Matkovic V, Boushey C, Savaiano DA, ACT Research Team. Bone mineral and predictors of bone mass in white, Hispanic, and Asian early pubertal girls. Calcif Tissue Int. 2007;81(5):352–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sainz J, Van Tornout JM, Loro ML, Sayre J, Roe TF, Gilsanz V. Vitamin D-receptor gene polymorphisms and bone density in prepubertal American girls of Mexican descent. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(2):77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Auld G, Boushey CJ, Bock MA, Bruhn C, Gabel K, Gustafson D, Holmes B, Misner S, Novotny R, Peck L, Pelican S, Pond-Smith D, Read M. Perspectives on intake of calcium-rich foods among Asian, Hispanic, and white preadolescent and adolescent females. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2002;34(5):242–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Looker AC, Loria CM, Carroll MD, McDowell MA, Johnson CL. Calcium intakes of Mexican Americans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, non-Hispanic whites, and non-Hispanic blacks in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc. 1993;93(11):1274–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weaver CM, Peacock M, Johnston Jr CC. Adolescent nutrition in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(6):1839–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bryant RJ, Wastney ME, Martin BR, Wood O, McCabe GP, Morshidi M, Smith DL, Peacock M, Weaver CM. Racial differences in bone turnover and calcium metabolism in adolescent females. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(3):1043–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jackman LA, Millane SS, Martin BR, Wood OB, McCabe GP, Peacock M, Weaver CM. Calcium retention in relation to calcium intake and postmenarcheal age in adolescent females. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(2):327–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, D.C.: The National Academy Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lloyd T, Andon MB, Rollings N, Martel JK, Landis JR, Demers LM, Eggli DF, Kieselhorst K, Kulin HE. Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. JAMA. 1993;270(7):841–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Johnston Jr CC, Miller JZ, Slemenda CW, Reister TK, Hui S, Christian JC, Peacock M. Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. N Engl J Med. 1992;327(2):82–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee WT, Leung SS, Wang SH, Xu YC, Zeng WP, Lau J, Oppenheimer SJ, Cheng JC. Double-blind, controlled calcium supplementation and bone mineral accretion in children accustomed to a low-calcium diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(5):744–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bonjour JP, Carrie AL, Ferrari S, Clavien H, Slosman D, Theintz G, Rizzoli R. Calcium-enriched foods and bone mass growth in prepubertal girls: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Invest. 1997;99(6):1287–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cadogan J, Eastell R, Jones N, Barker ME. Milk intake and bone mineral acquisition in adolescent girls: randomised, controlled intervention trial. BMJ. 1997;315(7118):1255–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Orces CH, Casas C, Lee S, Garci-Cavazos R, White W. Determinants of osteoporosis prevention in low-income Mexican-American women. South Med J. 2003;96(5):458–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pothiwala P, Evans EM, Chapman-Novakofski KM. Ethnic variation in risk for osteoporosis among women: a review of biological and behavioral factors. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2006;15(6):709–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yarbrough MM, Williams DP, Allen MM. Risk factors associated with osteoporosis in Hispanic women. J Women Aging. 2004;16(3–4):91–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Novotny R, Boushey C, Bock MA, Peck L, Auld G, Bruhn CM, Gustafson D, Gabel K, Jensen JK, Misner S, Read M. Calcium intake of Asian, Hispanic and white youth. J Am Coll Nutr. 2003;22(1):64–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abrams SA, Griffin IJ, Hicks PD, Gunn SK. Pubertal girls only partially adapt to low dietary calcium intakes. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19(5):759–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Abrams SA, Copeland KC, Gunn SK, Stuff JE, Clarke LL, Ellis KJ. Calcium absorption and kinetics are similar in 7- and 8-year-old Mexican-American and Caucasian girls despite hormonal differences. J Nutr. 1999;129(3):666–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang MC, Aguirre M, Bhudhikanok GS, Kendall CG, Kirsch S, Marcus R, Bachrach LK. Bone mass and hip axis length in healthy Asian, black, Hispanic, and white American youths. J Bone Miner Res. 1997;12(11):1922–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bachrach LK, Hastie T, Wang MC, Narasimhan B, Marcus R. Bone mineral acquisition in healthy Asian, Hispanic, black, and Caucasian youth: a longitudinal study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(12):4702–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Braun M, Palacios C, Wigertz K, Jackman LA, Bryant RJ, McCabe LD, Martin BR, McCabe GP, Peacock M, Weaver CM. Racial differences in skeletal calcium retention in adolescent girls with varied controlled calcium intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(6):1657–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wu L, Martin BR, Braun MM, Wastney ME, McCabe GP, McCabe LD, DiMeglio LA, Peacock M, Weaver CM. Calcium requirements and metabolism in Chinese-American boys and girls. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25(8):1842–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Braun M, Martin BR, Kern M, McCabe GP, Peacock M, Jiang Z, Weaver CM. Calcium retention in adolescent boys on a range of controlled calcium intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(2):414–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human DevelopmentSchool of Public Health, University of Puerto RicoSan JuanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition SciencePurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations