Strategies for Improving Vitamin D Status: Focus on Fortification

  • Timothy J. GreenEmail author
  • Wangyang Li
  • Susan J. Whiting


A lack of vitamin D leads to a number of adverse health outcomes, and the most widely accepted is an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. A number of national surveys have shown that 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations, the best indicator of vitamin D status, are below even conservative cutoffs for sufficiency (<50 nmol/L). Strategies are needed to improve vitamin D status. Sunlight exposure is an important contributor to vitamin D status; however, at higher latitudes during the winter and in populations that do not receive adequate sunlight exposure for various reasons, an exogenous source of vitamin D is required. Vitamin D intake from natural food sources is low in most populations. Furthermore, supplementation, although effective and very important as method to combat vitamin D insufficiency, will not work for the entire population. Vitamin D fortification does improve vitamin D intakes and status of populations, but a greater range of food vehicles and/or greater amounts of vitamin D may be necessary to improve vitamin d status.


Vitamin D 25 hydroxyvitamin D Vitamin D fortification Vitamin D supplementation Vitamin D intakes 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy J. Green
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wangyang Li
    • 1
  • Susan J. Whiting
    • 2
  1. 1.Food, Nutrition and HealthUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Division of Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Pharmacy and NutritionUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

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