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Dietary Anthocyanidins and Bone Health

  • Claire J. Macdonald-ClarkeEmail author
  • Helen M. Macdonald
Chapter

Abstract

There is evidence to suggest that fruit and vegetable consumption is beneficial for bone health. Anthocyanins are bioactive flavonoid compounds found mostly in fruits, particularly berries, some vegetables, and wine. A diet rich in anthocyanidins is thought to have multiple health benefits, and recent studies have shown that high intakes of anthocyanidins are associated with markers of bone health. However, much is still unknown about the variation in composition of anthocyanidins in foods worldwide, and therefore it is difficult to quantify dietary intakes with certainty.

To date there have been no human intervention studies looking at anthocyanidins in relation to bone health, but anthocyanidin-rich dried fruits have shown positive effects on markers of bone health in both human observational and animal studies.

The metabolism, bioavailability, and absorption of anthocyanidins vary greatly between people, partly due to differences in gut microflora which metabolizes anthocyanidins into products such as phenolic acids. However, the processes involved with the metabolism, bioavailability, and absorption of anthocyanidins are not fully understood. Cellular studies have shown that it is the anthocyanidin metabolites and not the intact anthocyanidins that affect osteoblast differentiation. Neither anthocyanidins nor their metabolites have been studied directly on osteoclasts in vitro.

Preliminary data suggests that an anthocyanidin-rich diet may have positive effects on bone health which may in future have consequences for dietary guidelines. However, much is still to be investigated in this area particularly with regard to metabolism and cellular mechanism of action. An intervention study quantifying the effects of anthocyanidins on markers of bone health is recommended. This chapter explores the current evidence for the role of anthocyanidins in bone health.

Keywords

Anthocyanidins Anthocyanins Polyphenols Flavonoids Osteoporosis Bone Bone turnover Bone mineral density 

Abbreviations

ALP

Alkaline phosphatase

APOSS

Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study

BALP

Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase

BMD

Bone mineral density

CRP

C-reactive protein

DPD

Deoxypyridinoline

FFQ

Food frequency questionnaire

HP

Helical peptide

HPLC

High-performance liquid chromatography

HRT

Hormone replacement therapy

IGF-1

Insulin-like growth factor

NF-κB

Nuclear factor-κB

OC

Osteocalcin

ORX

Orchidectomized

OVX

Ovariectomized

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

PYD

Pyridinoline

TbN

Trabecular number

TbSp

Trabecular separation

TRAP

Tartrate-resistant acid phosphate

USDA

US Department of Agriculture

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claire J. Macdonald-Clarke
    • 1
    Email author
  • Helen M. Macdonald
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Musculoskeletal Research ProgrammeUniversity of AberdeenForesterhill, AberdeenScotland, UK
  2. 2.Department of Musculoskeletal ResearchUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenUK

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