Lower Urinary Tract Emergencies



Painful inability to void, with relief of pain following drainage of the bladder by catheterization.


Acute Urinary Retention Risk Factors for Postoperative Retention Urinary Retention: Initial Management Retention in Patients with a Catheterizable Stoma Postpartum Retention of Urine The Ketamine Bladder 


  1. Abrams P, Dunn M, George N. Urodynamic findings in chronic retention of urine and their relevance to results of surgery. BMJ. 1978;2:1258–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brading AF, Greenland JE, Mills IW, Symes S. Blood supply to the bladder during filling. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1999;201(suppl):25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carley ME, Carley JM, Vasdev G, Lesnick TG, et al. Factors that are associated with clinically overt postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:430–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Djavan B, Madersbacher S, Klingler C, Marberger M. Urodynamic assessment of patients with acute urinary retention: is treatment failure after prostatectomy predictable. J Urol. 1997;158:1829–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fowler C. Urinary retention in women. Br J Urol Int. 2003;91: 463–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. George NJR, O’Reilly PH, Barnard RJ, Blacklock NJ. High pressure chronic retention. BMJ. 1983;286:1780–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hastie KJ, Dickinson AJ, Ahmad R, Moisey CU. Acute retention of urine: is trial without catheter justified? J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1990;35:225–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. McNeill SA. Does acute urinary retention respond to ­alpha-blockers alone? Eur Urol. 2001;9 suppl 6:7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. McNeill SA, Daruwala PD, Mitchell IDC, et al. Sustained-release alfuzosin and trial without catheter after acute urinary retention. Br J Urol Int. 1999;84:622–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mitchell JP. Management of chronic urinary retention. BMJ. 1984;289:515–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ramsden PD, Smith JC, Dunn M, Ardran GM. Distension therapy for the unstable bladder: later results including an assessment of repeat distensions. Br J Urol. 1976;48:623–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Smith, K. and Flatley, J. (Eds) (2011) Drug Misuse Declared: Findings from the 2010/11 British Crime Survey. Home Office Statistical Bulletin 12/11. London: Home Office. Accessed on Dec. 2012.
  13. Wood D, Cottrell A, Baker SC, et al. Recreational ketamine: from pleasure to pain. Br J Urol Int. 2011;107:1881–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Yip SK, Sahota D, Pang MW, Chang A. Postpartum urinary retention. Acta Scand Gynecol Scand 2004;83:881–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Zaki S, Pandit M, Jackson S. National survey for intrapartum and postpartum bladder care: assessing the need for guidelines. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;111:874–6.Google Scholar

Additional Reading

  1. Matthias B, Schiltenwolf M. Cauda equina syndrome caused by intervertebral lumbar disc prolapse: mid-term results of 22 patients and literature review. Orthopedics. 2002;25:727–31.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urology, Nuffield Department of Surgical SciencesOxford University HospitalsOxfordUK
  2. 2.The National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville HospitalAylesburyUK

Personalised recommendations